What is Gasoline

Gasoline Gasoline (also referred to as motor gasoline, petrol in Britain, benzine in Europe) is a mixture of volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum that is used as fuel for internal combustion engines such as occur in motor vehicles, excluding aircraft The boiling range of motor gasoline falls between –1°C (30°F) and 216°C (421°F) and has […]


Pipeline Design

      The major steps in pipeline system design involve establishment of critical pipeline performance objectives and critical engineering design parameters such as: • Required throughput (volume per unit time for most petroleum products; pounds per unit time for petrochemical feedstocks); • Origin and destination points; •Product properties such as viscosity and specific gravity; •Topography of pipeline […]

Centrifugal Compressors

Figure 1 shows the basic components of a centrifugal compressor. Impellers are mounted on a horizontal shaft. They are the primary rotating elements that impart velocity to the gas. Impellers are also called wheels. Diffusers are stationary elements mounted in the compressor casing. There is one diffuser downstream of each impeller. The diffuser converts velocity to […]

gate valve

Valve Types

      GENERAL In industrial piping, the control of flow is very important. Mechanical devices used for flow control are called valves. The principal functions of valves are: · Starting and Stopping Flow · Regulating or Throttling Flow · Preventing Back Flow · Regulating Pressure · Relieving Pressure Steel valves are classified by nominal pipe […]

Iraq Oil

Iraq Oil History

تاريخ انتاج النفط في العراق عقيل الشويلي        تعود محاولات انتاج النفط في العراق الى القرن التاسع عشر حيث كان الالمان هم اول من حاول استكشاف النفط في العراق في الفترة (1860-1880) حيث استقدمهم والي بغداد العثماني مدحت باشا وقاموا بإنشاء مصفى في بعقوبة لتصفية النفط المستخرج من مندلي وفي عام 1882قام السلطان […]


Oil Reservoir Administration

ادارة الحقول النفطية المهندس عقيل الشويلي تعتبر عملية استثمار الحقول النفطية من ضمن عمليات الانتاج التي تتضمن عدة نقاط جوهرية يجب ان يدركها العاملين في هذا القطاع اهمها : اولا : كيف يتم الانتاج ؟ وماهي الخطوات العملية للانتاج .؟ ثانيا : ماهي الكمية والنوع للمنتج ؟ ثالثا : لمن الانتاج ..؟ من الذي سيجني ثمار […]

Emulsion Treating Part.2

Emulsion-Treating Methods An emulsion-treating unit or system will use one or more of the methods to aid in destabilizing, coalescence, and/or gravity separation. Each of these treating methods is discussed separately below. Heating. Using heat to treat crude-oil emulsions has four basic benefits: Heat reduces the viscosity of the oil, which allows the water droplets to collide […]


Emulsion Treating Part.1

      Most of the world’s oil reservoirs now produce a mixture of oil and water. The liquids are subjected to shear forces through pumps or other lifting methods, or are sheared as they pass through pressure-reducing devices in the production line. The shear forces disperse one liquid into the other with variations in drop size and […]

crude oil treatment

Crude Oil Treatment

Crude Oil Treatment   Electrostatic & Mechanical Treaters Introduction After primary oil/water separation, there is often a small amount  of unwanted salts in residual water in the crude oil that needs to be reduced to a concentration around 5-10 PTB (Pounds per Thousand Barrels) salt. This salt needs to be removed so that the crude oil […]


Horizontal Tanks (HT) Horizontal vessels are commonly used as settling drums, surge tanks, reactors and distillate drums. A settling drum is used for phase separation between two immiscible liquids. The L/D ratio of a settling drum is normally four. A surge tank or surge drum is used to maintain a constant flowrate of liquid to a downstream […]

LNG plant

LNG Plant

Introduction to LNG Processes  The refrigeration and liquefaction sections of any LNG project are very costly items of equipment. A number of cycles have been developed to achieve the low temperatures required. Brief descriptions of a small number of process routes will be give. Some twelve countries were operating by 2003. The cycles employed are the […]

heavy oil

Heavy Oil

        Heavy oil is a type of petroleum that is different from conventional  petroleum insofar as they are much more difficult to recover from the subsurface reservoir. Heavy oil, particularly heavy oil formed by biodegradation of organic deposits, are found in shallow reservoirs, formed by unconsolidated sands. This characteristic, which brings about difficulties during well […]



    Principles of Combustion Effective fire prevention requires a thorough understanding of: 1) conditions under which flammable and combustible materials vaporize; 2) what is meant by an ignitable or flammable mixture; 3) what is meant by a source of ignition and how combustion spreads from such a source. This section discusses these topics. Definitions […]


Water-Base Muds

    Drilling Muds A water-base drilling fluid is one that has water as its continuous or liquid phase. The types of drilling fluids are briefly described in the following sections. Freshwater muds are generally lightly treated or untreated muds having a liquid phase of water, containing small concentrations of salt, and having a pH […]



    Introduction Flaring is a volatile organic compound (VOC) combustion control process in which the VOCs are piped to a remote, usually elevated, location and burned in an open flame in the open air using a specially designed burner tip, auxiliary fuel, and steam or air to promote mixing for nearly complete (> 98%) VOC destruction. Completeness […]

storage tanks

Storage Tanks

    Introduction The design of storage tanks for crude oil and petroleum products requires, in general, careful consideration of the following important factors: _ The vapor pressure of the materials to be stored. _ The storage temperature and pressure. _ Toxicity of the petroleum material In order to meet the environmental constraints on air pollution, […]


Oil Well Casing

    Types of Casing  Based on the primary function of the casing string, there are five types of casing to be distinguished. Stove or Surface Casing The stovepipe is usually driven to sufficient depth (15–60 ft) to protect loose surface formation and to enable circulation of the drilling fluid. This pipe is sometimes cemented […]


Drilling Fluid Additives

      Each drilling fluid vendor provides a wide array of basic and specialty chemicals to meet the needs of the drilling industry. The general classification of drilling fluid additives below is based on the definitions of the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC): Alkalinity or pH control additives are products designed to control […]