Introduction Flaring is a volatile organic compound (VOC) combustion control process in which the VOCs are piped to a remote, usually elevated, location and burned in an open flame in the open air using a specially designed burner tip, auxiliary fuel, and steam or air to promote mixing for nearly complete (> 98%) VOC destruction. Completeness […]

storage tanks

Storage Tanks

    Introduction The design of storage tanks for crude oil and petroleum products requires, in general, careful consideration of the following important factors: _ The vapor pressure of the materials to be stored. _ The storage temperature and pressure. _ Toxicity of the petroleum material In order to meet the environmental constraints on air pollution, […]


Oil Pipeline Testing Methods

Federal minimum pipeline safety regulations that establish minimum requirements for liquid pipeline safety integrity management allow four approaches to assess pipeline integrity: 1) Inline inspection or “ILI,” often called smart pigging, 2) hydrotesting, 3) direct assesment for external corrosion, 4) an equilavelent other technology that must be noticed and demonstrated to PHMSA before it is […]


Understanding Net Positive Suction Head

Atmospheric Pressure Until the early 17th century air was largely misunderstood. Evangelista Torricelli, an Italian scientist, was one of the first to discover that air, like water, has weight. He once said, “We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air.” The weight of this “ocean” of air exerts a force […]

storage tank

Storage Tanks Types

      Tank Types Tanks are usually described according to their function or their construction. Their function may be receiving, settling, treating, dehydrating, washing, desalinating, storing or exporting. The construction is limited to two main categories: a. Fixed-roof-tanks b. Floating-roof tanks. a) Fixed-Roof Tanks see our Storage Tanks Books section As the name implies, […]

process control

process Control

Introduction to Process Control Safety regulations, stronger competition between each plant, tougher environmental regulations, and cost effectiveness have been key factors in the tightening of plant product quality specifications. The complexity of modern process plants had been increasing rapidly. As a result of this modern processes have become more difficult to operate because of the trend toward larger, more […]

Centrifugal Pump

Pump Selection

Type of Pump   The selection of type and construction of a pump is very important to meet the process specification and proper application. Knowledge of the variety of pumps in the market should be review. It is mentioned before, that there are two general types of pump in today’s industry: positive displacement and centrifugal (dynamic) pumps. Positive […]

Air Compressor

Air Compressor System

    There are several uses for compressed air in a plant. Many valves and instruments are pneumatic. Maintenance and construction tools often require compressed air as a power source. Air is required in some processes. It is used for decoking furnaces and for regenerating some catalysts and desiccants. Figure 1 shows a typical compressed air system […]