LNG plant

LNG Plant

Introduction to LNG Processes  The refrigeration and liquefaction sections of any LNG project are very costly items of equipment. A number of cycles have been developed to achieve the low temperatures required. Brief descriptions of a small number of process routes will be give. Some twelve countries were operating by 2003. The cycles employed are the […]

natural gas

Natural Gas Well Production Problems

    Eng. AlSayed Amer The ongoing process of producing hydrocarbons from a well is a dynamic process and this is often evidenced in terms of changes in the rock or fluid production characteristics. Problems are frequently encountered as a results of many reasons will be discussed. Associated Production Problems There are three basic problems […]

LNG ship

Converting Natural Gas to LNG

LNG Natural gas, which is comprised primarily of methane, is one of our most abundant natural resources, both domestic and abroad. Unfortunately, many of the natural gas reservoirs are located in relatively remote areas, or offshore, and high transportation costs tend to prohibit extensive use of this potentially valuable resource. To overcome this limitation, the Department of Energy’s […]

natural gas storage

Natural Gas Processing

Necessary Conditions and Goals of Processing : The types of treatments carried out on gas streams usually are: separation; – heating; – inhibition. – dehydration; – liquid hydrocarbon recovery; – sweetening. Treatment needs and objectives: The first gas treatments are temporary. Their aim is to prevent the hydrates formation and they’re classified as follows: – separation […]

hydrate

Hydrates and Hydrate Prevention

    Hydrates Hydrates are crystallized, compact, porous and rather light mass, similar to compressed snow. They are made of water, hydrocarbons, H2S and CO2. Unlike ice, hydrates have an unusual characteristic: they form at a temperature that is above water freezing point . For instance, they can form at 20 °C at particular pressures. When they are […]

natural gas storage

Sweet Gas – Acid Gas – Condensate Gas

    A natural gas is called sweet gas if it has no sour components such as H2S, CO2, mercaptans, but is almost exclusively composed of methane, low amounts of ethane, propane, inert gases (N2) and traces of heavier hydrocarbons. It is generally saturated in water at reservoir temperature and pressure. A natural gas is usually defined as […]

natural gas

Components of Natural Gas other than Methane

Natural gas is a mixture of methane, with lower amounts of other hydrocarbons and other substances. These other constituents modify the physical and chemical characteristics of natural gas, for example, inert gases make the natural gas heating value lower. The substances that can be in natural gas are: • Carbon dioxide • Nitrogen • Hydrogen sulphide Heavier hydrocarbons […]

Dehydration

Natural Gas Dehydration Part.1

Definition of Natural Gas Dehydration  the removal of water from natural gas by lowering the dew point temperature of the natural gas    Objective: To prepare natural gas for sale, its undesirable components (water, H2S and CO2) must be removed. Most natural gas contains substantial amounts of water vapor due to the presence of connate […]

natural gas

Natural Gas Industry

Natural Gas Terminology: Reservoir: Porous & permeable underground formation containing an individual bank of H.C.s confined by impermeable rock or water barriers characterized by a single natural pressure system. read also What is Natural Gas Field: Area of one or more reservoirs related to same structural feature. Pool: Contains one or more reservoirs in isolated structures. […]

Natural Gas to Liquids GTL

GTL: GTL means Gas to Liquids. A whole range of fuels can be produced from Natural gas by partial oxidation to synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) and subsequent conversion of this gas • 1993 – Shell pioneered the GTL business at their Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis Plant in Bintulu. In this plant […]

hydrate

Natural Gas Hydrates

what are Hydrates Introduction to Hydrate Natural gas hydrates are ice-like materials formed under low temperature and high pressure conditions. Natural gas hydrates consist of water molecules interconnected through hydrogen bonds which create an open structural lattice that has the ability to encage smaller hydrocarbons from natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons as guest molecules. Interest […]

LNG

What is LNG?

What is LNG? Liquefied natural gas, or LNG, is natural gas in its liquid form. When natural gas is cooled to minus 259 degrees Fahrenheit (-161 degrees Celsius), it becomes a clear, colorless, odorless liquid. LNG is neither corrosive nor toxic. Natural gas is primarily methane, with low concentrations of other hydrocarbons, water, carbon dioxide, […]

What is Natural Gas?

      Natural gas is a subcategory of petroleum that is a naturally occurring, complex mixture of hydrocarbons, with a minor amount of inorganic compounds. Geologists and chemists agree that petroleum originates from plants and animal remains that accumulate on the sea/lake floor along with the sediments that form sedimentary rocks. The processes by […]

dehydration

Natural Gas Dehydration Part.2

PROCESS DESCRIPTION OF GAS DEHYDRATION The principle of glycol dehydration is contacting a natural gas stream with a hygroscopic liquid which has a greater affinity for the water vapor than does the gas. Contactor pressure is subject to economic evaluation usually influenced by water removal duty, required water dewpoint, vessel diameter and wall thickness. After […]

LPG

What is LPG

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) includes propane, butane, butadiene, isopropane, propylene, and vinyl chloride monomer, which are all by-products of the production of oil and natural gas. LPGs have a variety of uses including as a cooking/heating fuel, refinery feedstock, automotive power, and numerous other plastics and chemicals applications. another definition of LPG is that LPG […]