Category «Petroleum – English»

a collection of petroleum articles

Removing H2S from Oil

1、INTRODUCTION Sulfur compounds exist in various light oils made from petroleum. Such as mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, which cause foul odors and deteriorate the finished products. In addition, due to their acidity, they are corrosive to metals, which is harmful for storage and usage of oil products. Therefore, it is necessary to remove them. In the refining industry, an aqueous …

Wells – Chemicals

Chemicals Used in Fracturing The identities of chemicals incorporated in fracturing fluids were probably the first thing sensationalized about fracturing. The movie “Gasland” created quite a stir with the statement that a “cocktail” of several hundred toxic chemicals were “potentially” used in fracturing. The grain of truth was that there are many chemicals in additives …

Chemicals Used in Crude Oil Production

Petroleum “A complex combination of hydrocarbons. It consists predominantly of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons. It may also contain small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur compounds. This category encompasses light, medium, and heavy petroleums, as well as the oils extracted from tar sands. Hydrocarbonaceous materials requiring major chemical changes for their recovery or conversion to petroleum refinery feedstocks …

Offshore Petroleum Platforms

what are offshore platforms? Offshore structures are used worldwide for a variety of functions and in a variety of water depths, and environments. Since right selection of equipment, types of platforms and method of drilling and also right planning, design, fabrication, transportation, installation and commissioning of petroleum platforms, considering the water depth and environment conditions are very important, this …

Gas–Oil Separators part. 2

Inlet Diverters Inlet diverters are used to cause the initial bulk separation of liquid and gas. The most common type is the baffle plate diverter, which could be in the shape of a flat plate, a spherical dish, or a cone. Another type, is the centrifugal diverter; it is more efficient but more expensive. The diverter provides a …

Gas–Oil Separators part. 1

Commercial Types of Gas–Oil Separator Based on the configuration, the most common types of separator are horizontal, vertical, and spherical, Large horizontal gas–oil separators are used almost exclusively in processing well fluids in the Middle East, where the gas–oil ratio of the producing fields is high. Multistage GOSPs normally consists of three or more separators. The following is a …

Two-Phase Gas–Oil Separation

At the high pressure existing at the bottom of the producing well, crude oil contains great quantities of dissolved gases. When crude oil is brought to the surface, it is at a much lower pressure. Consequently, the gases that were dissolved in it at the higher pressure tend to come out from the liquid. Some means must be provided …

Oil Refinery Processes

Process Objective: To distill and separate valuable distillates (naphtha, kerosene,diesel) and atmospheric gas oil (AGO) from the crude feedstock. Primary Process Technique: Complex distillation Process steps: –Preheat the crude feed utilizing recovered heat from the product streams –Desalt and dehydrate the crude using electrostatic enhanced liquid/liquid separation (Desalter) –Heat the crude to the desired temperature …

Detection of Oil Spills

Oil Spills Special instruments are sometimes required to detect an oil spill, especially if the slick is very thin or not clearly visible. For example, if a spill occurs at night, in ice, or among weeds, the oil slick must be detected and tracked using instruments onboard aircraft, satellites, or spacecraft. This technology is known as remote sensing. …

Testing of Drilling Systems

To properly control the hole cleaning, suspension, and filtration properties of a drilling fluid, testing of the fluid properties is done on a daily basis. Most tests are conducted at the rig site, and procedures are set forth in the API RPB13B. Testing of water-based fluids and nonaqueous fluids can be similar, but variations of procedures occur due to …

Oil Well Planning

Drilling optimization requires detailed engineering in all aspects of well planning, drilling implementation, and post-run evaluation Effective well planning optimizes the boundaries, constraints, learning, nonproductive time, and limits and uses new technologies as well as tried and true methods. Use of decision support packages, which document the reasoning behind the decision-making, is key to shared learning and continuous improvement processes. It …

what is Naphtha

what is Naphtha Naphtha is a liquid petroleum product that boils from about 30°C (86°F) to approximately 200°C (392°F), although there are different grades of naphtha within this extensive boiling range that have different boiling ranges . The term petroleum solvent is often used synonymously with naphtha. On a chemical basis, naphtha is difficult to define precisely because it can contain …

Acidizing Different Formations

Much of the worlds oil and gas comes from limestone (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) formations, either in their relatively pure form or in the form of carbonate or siliceous sands cemented together with calcareous materials (CaCO3). Dolomites are similar to limestones with the exception that they generally react more slowly with hydrochloric acid. The primary method of stimulating …

Acidizing Concepts

Acid Types Although many acid compounds are available to the oil industry, only the following types have been proven economically effective in oil well stimulation: Inorganic Acids (Strong). · Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). · Hydrofluoric Acid (HCl:HF). Other inorganic acids include Sulphamic, Sulphuric and Nitric acids. Organic Acids (Weak). · Acetic Acid and Glacial Acetic Acid. · …

Oilfield Paraffin and Asphaltene

Paraffin control products prevent crude oil precipitation of paraffin wax deposits in production risers, subsea tie-backs, or any other production tubular or transportation pipeline. Paraffin – Asphaltenes and Inhibitors Some formulation products are wax crystal modifiers that prevent paraffin formation by interfering with the bonding of aliphatic wax molecules. Composed of branched chain polymers, these …