Category «Petroleum – English»

a collection of petroleum articles

Oil Refinery Processes

Process Objective: To distill and separate valuable distillates (naphtha, kerosene,diesel) and atmospheric gas oil (AGO) from the crude feedstock. Primary Process Technique: Complex distillation Process steps: –Preheat the crude feed utilizing recovered heat from the product streams –Desalt and dehydrate the crude using electrostatic enhanced liquid/liquid separation (Desalter) –Heat the crude to the desired temperature …

Detection of Oil Spills

Oil Spills Special instruments are sometimes required to detect an oil spill, especially if the slick is very thin or not clearly visible. For example, if a spill occurs at night, in ice, or among weeds, the oil slick must be detected and tracked using instruments onboard aircraft, satellites, or spacecraft. This technology is known as remote sensing. …

Testing of Drilling Systems

To properly control the hole cleaning, suspension, and filtration properties of a drilling fluid, testing of the fluid properties is done on a daily basis. Most tests are conducted at the rig site, and procedures are set forth in the API RPB13B. Testing of water-based fluids and nonaqueous fluids can be similar, but variations of procedures occur due to …

Oil Well Planning

Drilling optimization requires detailed engineering in all aspects of well planning, drilling implementation, and post-run evaluation Effective well planning optimizes the boundaries, constraints, learning, nonproductive time, and limits and uses new technologies as well as tried and true methods. Use of decision support packages, which document the reasoning behind the decision-making, is key to shared learning and continuous improvement processes. It …

what is Naphtha

what is Naphtha Naphtha is a liquid petroleum product that boils from about 30°C (86°F) to approximately 200°C (392°F), although there are different grades of naphtha within this extensive boiling range that have different boiling ranges . The term petroleum solvent is often used synonymously with naphtha. On a chemical basis, naphtha is difficult to define precisely because it can contain …

Acidizing Different Formations

Much of the worlds oil and gas comes from limestone (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) formations, either in their relatively pure form or in the form of carbonate or siliceous sands cemented together with calcareous materials (CaCO3). Dolomites are similar to limestones with the exception that they generally react more slowly with hydrochloric acid. The primary method of stimulating …

Acidizing Concepts

Acid Types Although many acid compounds are available to the oil industry, only the following types have been proven economically effective in oil well stimulation: Inorganic Acids (Strong). · Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). · Hydrofluoric Acid (HCl:HF). Other inorganic acids include Sulphamic, Sulphuric and Nitric acids. Organic Acids (Weak). · Acetic Acid and Glacial Acetic Acid. · …

Oilfield Paraffin and Asphaltene

Paraffin control products prevent crude oil precipitation of paraffin wax deposits in production risers, subsea tie-backs, or any other production tubular or transportation pipeline. Paraffin – Asphaltenes and Inhibitors Some formulation products are wax crystal modifiers that prevent paraffin formation by interfering with the bonding of aliphatic wax molecules. Composed of branched chain polymers, these …

Crude Oil Components

On average, crude oil are made of the following elements or compounds: Carbon – 84% Hydrogen – 14% Sulfur – 1 to 3% (hydrogen sulfide, sulfides, disulfides, elemental sulfur) Nitrogen – less than 1% (basic compounds with amine groups) Oxygen – less than 1% (found in organic compounds such as carbon dioxide, phenols, ketones, carboxylic …

Directional Drilling Glossary

The glossary of terms used in directional drilling has been developed by the API Subcommittee on Controlled Deviation Drilling under the jurisdiction of the American Petroleum Institute Production Department’s Executive Committee on Drilling and Production Practice. The most frequently used terms listed below. Angle of inclination (angle of drift). The angle, in degrees, taken at …

Surface & Subsurface Production Equipments and Accessories

Surface Production Equipment –   Well head –   X-mass tree Subsurface Production Equipment –  Tubing –  Packer –  Bridge Plug –  Safety Valve Production Wellheads The surface termination of a wellbore that incorporates facilities for installing casing hangers during the well construction phase. The wellhead also incorporates a means of hanging the production tubing …

what are Emulsions

Removing water from crude oil often requires additional processing beyond gravitational separation. In selecting a treating system, several factors should be considered to determine the most desirable methods of treating the crude oil to contract requirements. Some of these factors are: Tightness of the emulsion. Specific gravity of the oil and produced water. Corrosiveness of …

Drilling Bits

when talking about oil well drilling, it is important to know How well the drilling bit drills depends on several factors, such as the condition of the drilling bit, the weight applied to it, and the rate at which it is rotated. Also important for a drilling bit performance is the effectiveness of the drilling …