Emulsion Treating Part.2

Emulsion-Treating Methods An emulsion-treating unit or system will use one or more of the methods to aid in destabilizing, coalescence, and/or gravity separation. Each of these treating methods is discussed separately below. Heating. Using heat to treat crude-oil emulsions has four basic benefits: Heat reduces the viscosity of the oil, which allows the water droplets to collide […]


Emulsion Treating Part.1

      Most of the world’s oil reservoirs now produce a mixture of oil and water. The liquids are subjected to shear forces through pumps or other lifting methods, or are sheared as they pass through pressure-reducing devices in the production line. The shear forces disperse one liquid into the other with variations in drop size and […]

crude oil treatment

Crude Oil Treatment

Crude Oil Treatment   Electrostatic & Mechanical Treaters Introduction After primary oil/water separation, there is often a small amount  of unwanted salts in residual water in the crude oil that needs to be reduced to a concentration around 5-10 PTB (Pounds per Thousand Barrels) salt. This salt needs to be removed so that the crude oil […]

heavy oil

Heavy Oil Recovery

  American Petroleum Institute API classifies crude oil into different types as follows: Light Crude Oil : its API is greater than 31.1° Medium Crude Oil: its API is between 22.3° and 30.2°. Heavy Crude Oil: its API is between 22.3° and 10°. heavy crude oil has a high viscosity, high density. and the heavy […]

heavy oil

Heavy Oil

        Heavy oil is a type of petroleum that is different from conventional  petroleum insofar as they are much more difficult to recover from the subsurface reservoir. Heavy oil, particularly heavy oil formed by biodegradation of organic deposits, are found in shallow reservoirs, formed by unconsolidated sands. This characteristic, which brings about difficulties during well […]


Three-Phase Oil–Water–Gas Separators

      in general, to the separation of any gas–liquid system such as gas–oil, gas–water, and gas–condensate systems. In almost all production operations, however, the produced fluid stream consists of three phases: oil, water, and gas. Generally, water produced with the oil exists partly as free water and partly as water-in-oil emulsion. In some cases, however, when […]


Reservoir Simulation Data Management

Reservoir Simulation Data Management Eng.Ali Yahya Jirjees Salman Introduction Data from a wide variety of sources are required for reservoir simulation. Simulation itself produces large quantities of data. Yet, good data management practices for reservoir simulation data are typically neither well-understood nor widely investigated. Reservoir simulation is inherently a data-intensive process. It starts with geological […]

Removing H2S from Oil

    1、INTRODUCTION Sulfur compounds exist in various light oils made from petroleum. Such as mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, which cause foul odors and deteriorate the finished products. In addition, due to their acidity, they are corrosive to metals, which is harmful for storage and usage of oil products. Therefore, it is necessary to remove them. In the refining industry, […]


Chemicals Used in Crude Oil Production

Petroleum “A complex combination of hydrocarbons. It consists predominantly of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons. It may also contain small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur compounds. This category encompasses light, medium, and heavy petroleums, as well as the oils extracted from tar sands. Hydrocarbonaceous materials requiring major chemical changes for their recovery or conversion to petroleum refinery feedstocks […]

offshore platform

Offshore Petroleum Platforms

what are offshore platforms? Offshore structures are used worldwide for a variety of functions and in a variety of water depths, and environments. Since right selection of equipment, types of platforms and method of drilling and also right planning, design, fabrication, transportation, installation and commissioning of petroleum platforms, considering the water depth and environment conditions are very important, this […]


Gas–Oil Separators part. 2

Inlet Diverters Inlet diverters are used to cause the initial bulk separation of liquid and gas. The most common type is the baffle plate diverter, which could be in the shape of a flat plate, a spherical dish, or a cone. Another type, is the centrifugal diverter; it is more efficient but more expensive. The diverter provides a […]

التصميم الداخلي لعازلة أفقية

Gas–Oil Separators part. 1

Commercial Types of Gas–Oil Separator Based on the configuration, the most common types of separator are horizontal, vertical, and spherical, Large horizontal gas–oil separators are used almost exclusively in processing well fluids in the Middle East, where the gas–oil ratio of the producing fields is high. Multistage GOSPs normally consists of three or more separators. The following is a […]

Vertical Separator

Two-Phase Gas–Oil Separation

      At the high pressure existing at the bottom of the producing well, crude oil contains great quantities of dissolved gases. When crude oil is brought to the surface, it is at a much lower pressure. Consequently, the gases that were dissolved in it at the higher pressure tend to come out from the liquid. Some means […]


Oil Refinery Processes

Process Objective: To distill and separate valuable distillates (naphtha, kerosene,diesel) and atmospheric gas oil (AGO) from the crude feedstock. Primary Process Technique: Complex distillation Process steps: –Preheat the crude feed utilizing recovered heat from the product streams –Desalt and dehydrate the crude using electrostatic enhanced liquid/liquid separation (Desalter) –Heat the crude to the desired temperature […]

oil spill

Detection of Oil Spills

Oil Spills Special instruments are sometimes required to detect an oil spill, especially if the slick is very thin or not clearly visible. For example, if a spill occurs at night, in ice, or among weeds, the oil slick must be detected and tracked using instruments onboard aircraft, satellites, or spacecraft. This technology is known as remote sensing. […]


Geologic Classification of Petroleum Reservoirs

  Petroleum reservoirs exist in many different sizes and shapes of geologic structures. It is usually convenient to classify the reservoirs according to the conditions of their formation as follows: 1. Dome-Shaped and Anticline Reservoirs: These reservoirs are formed by the folding of the rock layers as shown in Figure 1. The dome is circular in outline, and the […]


Oil Well Planning

Drilling optimization requires detailed engineering in all aspects of well planning, drilling implementation, and post-run evaluation Effective well planning optimizes the boundaries, constraints, learning, nonproductive time, and limits and uses new technologies as well as tried and true methods. Use of decision support packages, which document the reasoning behind the decision-making, is key to shared learning and continuous improvement processes. It […]

crude Tank

Crude Oil Stabilization and Sweetening

Once degassed and dehydrated–desalted, crude oil is pumped to gathering facilities to be stored in storage tanks. However, if there are any dissolved gases that belong to the light or the intermediate hydrocarbon groups it will be necessary to remove these gases along with hydrogen sulfide (if present in the crude) before oil can be stored. This process is […]


what is Naphtha

what is Naphtha Naphtha is a liquid petroleum product that boils from about 30°C (86°F) to approximately 200°C (392°F), although there are different grades of naphtha within this extensive boiling range that have different boiling ranges . The term petroleum solvent is often used synonymously with naphtha. On a chemical basis, naphtha is difficult to define precisely because it can contain […]


Acidizing Different Formations

Much of the worlds oil and gas comes from limestone (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) formations, either in their relatively pure form or in the form of carbonate or siliceous sands cemented together with calcareous materials (CaCO3). Dolomites are similar to limestones with the exception that they generally react more slowly with hydrochloric acid. The primary method of stimulating […]