Category «Petroleum Articles – English»

a collection of petroleum articles

Testing of Drilling Systems

To properly control the hole cleaning, suspension, and filtration properties of a drilling fluid, testing of the fluid properties is done on a daily basis. Most tests are conducted at the rig site, and procedures are set forth in the API RPB13B. Testing of water-based fluids and nonaqueous fluids can be similar, but variations of procedures occur due to …

Oil Well Planning

Drilling optimization requires detailed engineering in all aspects of well planning, drilling implementation, and post-run evaluation Effective well planning optimizes the boundaries, constraints, learning, nonproductive time, and limits and uses new technologies as well as tried and true methods. Use of decision support packages, which document the reasoning behind the decision-making, is key to shared learning and continuous improvement processes. It …

Crude Oil Stabilization and Sweetening

Once degassed and dehydrated–desalted, crude oil is pumped to gathering facilities to be stored in storage tanks. However, if there are any dissolved gases that belong to the light or the intermediate hydrocarbon groups it will be necessary to remove these gases along with hydrogen sulfide (if present in the crude) before oil can be stored. This process is …

what is Naphtha

what is Naphtha Naphtha is a liquid petroleum product that boils from about 30°C (86°F) to approximately 200°C (392°F), although there are different grades of naphtha within this extensive boiling range that have different boiling ranges . The term petroleum solvent is often used synonymously with naphtha. On a chemical basis, naphtha is difficult to define precisely because it can contain …

Acidizing Different Formations

Much of the worlds oil and gas comes from limestone (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) formations, either in their relatively pure form or in the form of carbonate or siliceous sands cemented together with calcareous materials (CaCO3). Dolomites are similar to limestones with the exception that they generally react more slowly with hydrochloric acid. The primary method of stimulating …

Acidizing Concepts

Acid Types Although many acid compounds are available to the oil industry, only the following types have been proven economically effective in oil well stimulation: Inorganic Acids (Strong). · Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). · Hydrofluoric Acid (HCl:HF). Other inorganic acids include Sulphamic, Sulphuric and Nitric acids. Organic Acids (Weak). · Acetic Acid and Glacial Acetic Acid. · …

Oilfield Paraffin and Asphaltene

Paraffin control products prevent crude oil precipitation of paraffin wax deposits in production risers, subsea tie-backs, or any other production tubular or transportation pipeline. Paraffin – Asphaltenes and Inhibitors Some formulation products are wax crystal modifiers that prevent paraffin formation by interfering with the bonding of aliphatic wax molecules. Composed of branched chain polymers, these …

Who is Petroleum Engineer?

by: Mohammed Altahir Eliebied Petroleum Engineer Job Description & Career Opportunities A petroleum engineer is a subset of the engineering career, focused upon the exploration for and extraction of hydrocarbons (crude oil or natural gas). Petroleum engineers often work closely with geologists to determine where accessible reservoirs of hydrocarbons are located, as well as the …

Crude Oil Components

On average, crude oil are made of the following elements or compounds: Carbon – 84% Hydrogen – 14% Sulfur – 1 to 3% (hydrogen sulfide, sulfides, disulfides, elemental sulfur) Nitrogen – less than 1% (basic compounds with amine groups) Oxygen – less than 1% (found in organic compounds such as carbon dioxide, phenols, ketones, carboxylic …

Directional Drilling Glossary

The glossary of terms used in directional drilling has been developed by the API Subcommittee on Controlled Deviation Drilling under the jurisdiction of the American Petroleum Institute Production Department’s Executive Committee on Drilling and Production Practice. The most frequently used terms listed below. Angle of inclination (angle of drift). The angle, in degrees, taken at …

Surface & Subsurface Production Equipments and Accessories

Surface Production Equipment –   Well head –   X-mass tree Subsurface Production Equipment –  Tubing –  Packer –  Bridge Plug –  Safety Valve Production Wellheads The surface termination of a wellbore that incorporates facilities for installing casing hangers during the well construction phase. The wellhead also incorporates a means of hanging the production tubing …

what are Emulsions

Removing water from crude oil often requires additional processing beyond gravitational separation. In selecting a treating system, several factors should be considered to determine the most desirable methods of treating the crude oil to contract requirements. Some of these factors are: Tightness of the emulsion. Specific gravity of the oil and produced water. Corrosiveness of …

Drilling Bits

when talking about oil well drilling, it is important to know How well the drilling bit drills depends on several factors, such as the condition of the drilling bit, the weight applied to it, and the rate at which it is rotated. Also important for a drilling bit performance is the effectiveness of the drilling …

Crude Oil Price

First of all we have to understand the Classification of Petroleum Products The petroleum products that may be subject to evaluation can be grouped as: crude oil – natural gas – associated products Crude oil is a liquid composite of many hydrocarbon compounds that, depending on the composition, has differing properties such as oil gravity, …

Drilling Fluids

Drilling Fluid Definitions and General Functions Results of research has shown that penetration rate and its response to weight on bit and rotary speed is highly dependent on the hydraulic horsepower reaching the formation at the bit. Because the drilling fluid flow rate sets the system pressure losses and these pressure losses set the hydraulic …

Petroleum Traps part 1

In addition to the requirement that source rock exists for the generation of hydrocarbons, and that reservoir rock exists for the storage and production of the generated hydrocarbons, traps must also exist to trap, or seal, the hydrocarbon in place forming a hydrocarbon reservoir. The fluids of the subsurface migrate according to density. As previously …