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Water-Base Muds

 

 

Drilling Muds

A water-base drilling fluid is one that has water as its continuous or liquid phase. The types of drilling fluids are briefly described in the following sections.

Freshwater muds are generally lightly treated or untreated muds having a liquid phase of water, containing small concentrations of salt, and having a pH ranging from8.0 to 10.5. Fresh water muds include the following types.

Spud Muds These muds are prepared with available water and appropriate concentrations of bentonite and/or premium commercial clays. They are generally untreated chemically, although lime, cement, or caustic soda is occasionally added to increase viscosity and give the mud a fluff to seal possible lost return zones in unconsolidated upper hole surface formations.

Spud muds are used for drilling the surface hole. Their tolerance for drilled solids and contaminants is very limited.

Natural Mud Natural or native muds use native drilled solids incorporated into the mud for viscosity, weight, and fluid loss control. They are often supplemented with bentonite for added stability and water loss control. Surfactants can be used to aid in controlling mud weight and solids buildup. Natural muds are generally used in top hole drilling to mud-up or to conversion depth. They have a low tolerance for solids and contamination.

Saltwater Muds Muds ordinarily are classified as saltwater muds when they  contain more than 10,000 mg/L of chloride. They may be further classified according to the amount of salt present and/or the source of makeup water (see Table below):

Amount of chloride in mg/L

  1. Saturated salt muds (315,000ppm as sodium chloride)
  2. Salt muds (over 10,000 mg/L chloride but not saturated) Source of make-up water
  3. Brackish water
  4. Sea Water

Saltwater muds may be purposely prepared, or they may result from the use of salty makeup water, from drilling into salt domes or stringers, or when saltwater flows are encountered. Saltwater muds include the following types.

sea water composition

Seawater or Brackish Water Muds These muds are prepared with available makeup water, both commercial and formation clay solids, caustic soda, and lignite and/or a lignosulfonate. CMC is usually used for fluid loss control, although concentration of lignites and lignosulfonates are also often used for this purpose. Viscosity and gel strength are controlled with caustic soda, lignosulfonate, and/or lignites. Soda ash is frequently used to lower the calcium concentration. CMC or lignosulfonates are used for water loss control, and pH is controlled between 8.5 to 11.0 with caustic

soda. Seawater muds and brackish or hard water muds are used primarily because of the convenience of makeup water, usually open sea or bays. The degree of inhibitive properties varies with the salt and calcium concentration in the formulated fluid.

Saturated Salt Muds Saturated salt water (natural or prepared) is used as makeup water in these fluids. Prehydrated bentonite (hydrated in freshwater) is added to give viscosity, and starch is commonly used to control fluid loss. Caustic soda is added to adjust the pH, and lignosulfonates are used for gel strength control. Occasionally, soda ash may be used to lower filtrate calcium and adjust the pH. Saturated salt muds are used to drill massive salt sections (composed mainly of NaCl) to prevent washouts and as a work-over or completion fluid. Freshwater bentonite suspensions are converted by adding NaCl to reach saturation. Conversion is carried out by diluting the freshwater mud to reduce the viscosity “hump” seen in breakovers. Saturated salt muds usually are used at mud weights below 14.0 lb/gal.

Composition of NaCl mud

  • Brine NaCl
  • Density —salt, barite, calcium carbonate or hematite
  • Viscosity — CMC HV, Prehydrated bentonite, XC-polymer (xanthan gum)
  • Rheology—lignosulfonate
  • Fluid Loss—CMC LV or PAC (polyanionic cellulose)
  • pH – Pf (alkalinity) —caustic potash or caustic soda

Chemically Treated Mud (No Calcium Compounds) This type of mud is made up of a natural mud that has been conditioned with bentonite and treated with caustic soda and lignite or lignosulfonate (organic thinner). No inhibiting ions are found in this type of fluid.

Lignite/Lignosulfonate Mud This fluid is prepared from fresh water and  conditioned with bentonite. Lignosulfonate is added as a thinner and lignite for filtration control and increased temperature stability. CMC or PAC may be used for additional filtration control when the bottom-hole temperature does not exceed 121◦C (250◦F). This type of mud is applied at all mud weights and provides a relatively low pH system (pH values for calcium lignosulfonates will be 10.0–11.0). This type of fluid is stable at reasonably high temperatures (325◦F) and has good resistance to contamination.

Calcium Treated Muds Calcium-treated fluids are prepared from any low or high pH mud by the addition of appropriate amounts of lime or gypsum, caustic soda, and thinner (lignite or lignosulfonate). Calcium-treated drilling muds include lime and gypsum drilling muds.

Lime Muds Lime muds include low- and high-lime muds. They are prepared from available drilling muds by adding calcium lignosulfonate, lignite, caustic soda or KOH, lime, and a filtration-control material, PAC or starch. Caustic soda is used to maintain the filtrate alkalinity (Pf values) and lime to control the mud alkalinity (Pm values) and excess lime. Lime drilling muds offer resistance to salt, cement, or anhydrite contamination even at high mud weights.

Gypsum Mud Commonly called “gyp muds,” they are prepared from freshwater and conditioned with bentonite or from available gel and water mud. Caustic soda is added for pH control. Gypsum, lignosulfonate, and additional caustic soda are added simultaneously to the mud. CMC may be added for filtration control. This fluid is used for drilling in mildly reactive shale or where gypsum or anhydrite must be drilled. It resists contamination from cement or salt. Use is limited by the temperature stability of the filtration control materials, CMC (250◦F ±).

Oil Well Casing

 

 

casing
Casing

Types of Casing 

Based on the primary function of the casing string, there are five types of casing to be distinguished.

Stove or Surface Casing The stovepipe is usually driven to sufficient depth (15–60 ft) to protect loose surface formation and to enable circulation of the drilling fluid. This pipe is sometimes cemented in predrilled holes.

Conductor String This string acts as a guide for the remaining casing strings into the hole. The purpose of the conductor string is also to cover unconsolidated formations and to seal off over pressured formations. The conductor string is the first string that is always cemented to the top and equipped with casing head and blowout prevention (BOP) equipment.

Surface Casing This is set deeply enough to protect the borehole from caving-in in loose formations frequently encountered at shallow depths, and protects the freshwater sands from contamination while subsequently drilling a deeper hole. In case the conductor string has not been set, the surface casing is fitted with casing head and BOP.

Intermediate Casing Also called protection string, this is usually set in the  transition zone before abnormally high formation pressure is encountered, to protect weak formations or to case off loss-of-circulation zones.

Depending upon geological conditions, the well may contain two or even three intermediate strings. Production string (oil string) is the string through which the well is produced.

Intermediate or production string can be set a liner string. The liner string extends from the bottom of the hole upward to a point about 150–250 ft above the lower end of the upper string.

Casing Program Design Casing program design is accomplished by two steps. In the first step, the casing sizes and corresponding bit sizes should be determined. In the second step, the setting depth of the individual casing strings ought to be evaluated. Before starting the casing program design, the designer ought to know the following basic information:

  • The purpose of the well (exploratory or development drilling)
  • Geological cross-sections that should consist of type of formations, expected hole problems, pore and formation’s fracture pressure, number and depth of water, oil, gas horizons Available rock bits, reamer shoes and casing sizes
  • Load capacity of a derrick and mast if the type of rig has already been selected

Read Also Drilling Fluids Additives

Before starting the design, it must be assumed that the production casing size and depth of the well has been established by the petroleum engineer in cooperation with a geologist, so that the hole size (rock bit diameter) for the casing may be selected. Considering the diameter of the hole, a sufficient clearance beyond the coupling outside diameter must be provided to allow for mud cake and also for a good cementing job. Field experience shows that the casing clearance should range from about 1.0 in. to 3.5 in. Larger casing sizes require greater value of casing clearance. Once the hole size for production string has been selected, the smallest casing through which a given bit will pass is next determined. The bit diameter should be a little less (0.05 in.) than casing drift diameter. After choosing the casing with appropriate drift diameter, the outside coupling diameter of this casing may be found. Next, the appropriate size of the bit should be determined

and the procedure repeated. Expandable casing technology, expandable drill bits, under-reamers and other tools for optimizations of borehole and/or string designs, are not covered in this article.

The operation of setting is governed by the principle according to which casing should be placed as deep as possible. However, the designer must remember to ensure the safety of the drilling crew from possible blowout, and to maintain the hole stability, well completion aspects (formation damage) and state regulations.

In general, casing should be set

  • Where drilling fluid could contaminate freshwater that might be used for drinking or other household purposes
  • Where unstable formations are likely to cave or slough into the borehole
  • Where loss of circulation may result in blowout
  • Where drilling fluid may severely damage production horizon

Read also Drilling Pipe

Currently, a graphical method of casing setting depth determination is used. The method is based on the principle according to which the borehole pressure should always be greater than pore pressure and less than fracture pressure. (Drilling with borehole pressures lower than pore pressure requires the use of under-balanced drilling technologies not covered in this article.)

For practical purposes, a safety margin for reasonable kick conditions should be imposed (Figure 8.1). Even when borehole pressure is adjusted correctly, problems may arise from the contact between the drilling fluid and the formation. It depends upon the type of drilling fluid and formation, but in general, the more time spent drilling in an open hole, the greater the possibility of formation caving or sloughing into the borehole.

Formation instability may lead to expensive work in the borehole, which influences the time and cost of the drilling operation. To arrest or reduce this problem, special treatment drilling fluids might be used, but these special drilling fluids are expensive. Therefore, the casing and drilling fluid programs depend on each other, and solving the issue of correct casing setting depth evaluation is a rather complicated, optimizing problem.

References:
1. Drilling Operations.
2. Drilling Equipment and Operation.

Drilling Fluid Additives

 

 

 

drilling fluidsEach drilling fluid vendor provides a wide array of basic and specialty chemicals to meet the needs of the drilling industry. The general classification of drilling fluid additives below is based on the definitions of the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC):

  1. Alkalinity or pH control additives are products designed to control the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a drilling fluid. These additives include lime, caustic soda, and bicarbonate of soda.
  2. Bactericides reduce the bacteria count of a drilling fluid. Paraformaldehyde, caustic soda, lime, and starch are commonly used as preservatives.
  3. Calcium removers are chemicals used to prevent and to overcome the contaminating effects of anhydride and gypsum, both forms of calcium sulfate, which can wreck the effectiveness of nearly any chemically treated mud. The most common calcium removers are caustic soda, soda ash, bicarbonate of soda, and certain polyphosphates.
  4. Corrosion inhibitors such as hydrated lime and amine salts are often added to mud and to air-gas systems. Mud containing an adequate percentage of colloids, certain emulsion muds, and oil muds exhibit, in themselves, excellent corrosion-inhibiting properties.
  5. Defoamers are products designed to reduce foaming action, particularly that occurring in brackish water and saturated saltwater muds.
  6. Emulsifiers are used for creating a heterogeneous mixture of two liquids. These include modified lignosulfonates, certain surface-active agents, anionic and nonionic (negatively charged and noncharged) products.
  7. Filtrate, or fluid loss, reducers such as bentonite clays, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and pregelatinized starch serve to cut filter loss, a measure of the tendency of the liquid phase of a drilling fluid to pass into the formation.
  8. Flocculants are used sometimes to increase gel strength. Salt (or brine), hydrated lime, gypsum, and sodium tetraphosphates may be used to cause the colloidal particles of a suspension to group into bunches of “flocks,” causing solids to settle out.
  9. Foaming agents are most often chemicals that also act as surfactants (surface-active agents) to foam in the presence of water. These foamers permit air or gas drilling through water-production formations.
  10. Lost circulation materials (LCM) include nearly every possible product used to stop or slow the loss of circulating fluids into the formation. This loss must be differentiated from the normal loss of filtration liquid and from the loss of drilling mud solids to the filter cake (which is a continuous process in an open hole).
  11. Extreme-pressure lubricants are designed to reduce torque by reducing the coefficient of friction and thereby increase horsepower at the bit. Certain oils, graphite powder, and soaps are used for this purpose.
  12. Shale control inhibitors such as gypsum, sodium silicate, chrome lignosulfonates,

as well as lime and salt are used to control caving by swelling or hydrous disintegration of shales.

  1. Surface-active agents (surfactants) reduce the interfacial tension between contacting surfaces (e.g., water—oil, water—solid, water— air); these may be emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, flocculants, or deflocculents, depending upon the surfaces involved.
  2. Thinners and dispersants modify the relationship between the viscosity and the percentage of solids in a drilling mud and may further be used to vary the gel strength and improve “pumpability.” Tannins (quebracho), various polyphosphates, and lignitic materials are chosen as thinners or as dispersants, because most of these chemicals also remove solids by precipitation or sequestering, and by deflocculation reactions.
  1. Viscosifiers such as bentonite, CMC, Attapulgite clays, sub-bentonites, and asbestos fibers are employed in drilling fluids to ensure a high viscosity–solids ratio.
  2. Weighting materials, including barite, lead compounds, iron oxides, and similar products possessing extraordinarily high specific gravities, are used to control formation pressures, check caving, facilitate pulling dry drill pipe on round trips, and aid in combating some types of circulation loss.

The most common commercially available drilling mud additives are published annually by World Oil. The listing includes names and descriptions of more than 2,000 mud additives.

References:
1. Drilling Operations.
2. Drilling Equipment and Operation.

Fishing Equipment

Fishing Operations and Equipment

A fish is a part of the drill string that separates from the upper remaining portion of the drill string while the drill string is in the well. This can result from the drill string failing mechanically, or from the lower portion of the drill string becoming stuck or otherwise becoming disconnected from drill string upper portion. Such an event will instigate an operation to free and retrieve the lower portion (or fish) from the well with a strengthened specialized string. Junk is usually described as small items of non-drillable metals that fall or are left behind in the borehole during the drilling, completion, or workover operations. These non-drillable items must be retrieved before operations can be continued]. The process of removing a fish or junk from the borehole is called fishing.

It is important to remove the fish or junk from the well as quickly as possible. The longer these items remain in a borehole, the more difficult these parts will be to retrieve. Further, if the fish or junk is in an open hole section of a well the more problems there will be with borehole stability.

There is an important tradeoff that must be considered during any fishing operation. Although the actual cost of a fishing operation is normally small compared to the cost of the drilling rig and other investments in support of the overall drilling operation, if a fish or junk cannot be removed from the borehole in a timely fashion, it may be necessary to sidetrack (directionally drill around the obstruction) or drill another borehole. Thus, the economics of the fishing operation and the other incurred costs at the well site must be

carefully and continuously assessed while the fishing operation is underway.

It is very important to know when to terminate the fishing operation and get on with the primary objective of drilling a well. Equation bellow can be used to determine the number of days that should be allowed for a fishing operation. The number of days, D (days), is:

fishing

Read Also Drilling Pipe

CAUSES AND PREVENTION

There are a number of causes for fishing operations. Many of the problems that lead to fishing operations can be prevented by careful operational planning and being very watchful as drilling operations progress for indications of possible future borehole troubles. The major causes of a fishing or junk retrieval operation are

  1. Differential Pressure Sticking. It is estimated that the cost of stuck pipe in deep oil and gas wells can be approximately 25% of the overall budget.

Therefore, a large portion of the fishing tools available were developed for the recovery of stuck pipe. This condition occurs when a portion of the drill string becomes stuck against wall of an open hole section of the borehole. This is due to smooth surface of the drill string (usually the drill collars) has become embedded in the filter cake on the wall. Differential sticking is possible in most borehole operations where drilling mud is being used as the circulation fluid. Underbalanced operations generally avoid this differential pressure sticking. Sticking occurs when the pressure exerted by the mud column is greater than the pressure of the formation fluids. Normally the drill string is deferentially stuck when :

  1. The drill string cannot be rotated, raised or lowered, but circulating pressure is normal.
  2. The drill collars are opposite a permeable formation.
  3. Sticking was instantaneous when the pipe was stationary after drilling at a higher than normal penetration rate. In some cases a differentially stuck string or bottomhole assembly may be freed by reducing the mud weight.

This will reduce the differential pressure between the column of mud and the permeable zone. However, this procedure should not be used if well control is a problem.

  1. Under Gauge Borehole. Mud filter cake can build excessively across a low pressure permeable formation when the circulation rate is low, water loss is very high, and there is an extended period between trips. Under these conditions, a drill string or logging tools can become stuck in the under gauge borehole and/or filter cake. Filter cake build up is usually slow and appears as drag on the multi-channel recorder, or as an under gauge hole on a caliper survey.
  2. Key seats. Key seats develop where there is a sudden change in hole deviation or above a washout in a deviated hole. Doglegs above the drill collars are subject to erosion or wear by the drill pipe on the high side of the dogleg. Continuous rotation can slowly cut a groove into the dogleg forming what is known as a key seat. The drill pipe body and tool

joints wear a groove in the formation approximately the same diameter as the tool joints. The wear is confined to a narrow groove, because high tension in the drill pipe prevents side ways movement. During a trip out of the hole, the BHA may be pulled into these grooves and the grooves may be too small to allow the BHA to pass through. In this situation no attempt should be made to jar the collars through a key seat. A possible

solution to this problem would be to circulate and rotate the drill string and move the string in small increments up through the key seat. All tight spots (over pull and depth of the over pull) should be noted and recorded on the IADC daily report and the drilling recorder.A tight spot that occurs on two successive trips out of the hole with over pull on the second trip greater than the first, is an indication of a key seat forming.

A key seat wiper or string reamer should be run on the third trip.

  1. Tapered hole. Abrasive hole sections will tend to dull bits and thereby reduce bit and stabilizer gauge. Attempting to maximize the length of a bit run in an abrasive formation may prove to be a false economy since an under gauge hole will likely lead to a reaming operation. If the driller fails to ream a new bit to bottom when this situation exists, the bit may jam in the under gauge hole. Proper grading and gauging of the old bit prior to running a new one will prevent this problem. Since this type of sticking usually occurs while tripping in the hole. In such situations, the string should be jarred up immediately. This will usually free the drill string. If jarring does not free the string, it will be necessary to make a back-off and wash over. Wash over procedures will be discussed below.
  2. Object along side the drill string. Occasionally, an object such as a wrench, bolt, slip or tong part, or a hammer will fall into the hole along side the drill string. Except when the string can be pushed or pulled around the object or the object can be pushed into the wall of the hole, serious fishing problems can develop. This is especially true when the string

gets jammed to one side of the hole in a cased hole. A visual check of all hand and other surface tools is required to see if anything is missing. Never leave the hole unprotected or leave loose objects lying around the rotary area. Jarring might free the string, if not, a short wash over is required using an internal spear to catch the string when it falls.

  1. Inadequate hole cleaning occurs as a result of
    a. Adrill string washout above the bit.
  2. Low circulation rate in a large hole with an unweighted mud system.
  3. Sloughing shale.
  4. Gravel bed in the shallow portion of the hole.
  5. Partial returns.

Indications of sticking due to inadequate hole cleaning are:

  1. A significant change in the amount of returns across the shaker before sticking.
  2. A decrease in pump pressure or increase in pump strokes followed by an increase in drag while picking up on the pipe (a washout in the drill string).
  3. An increase in pump pressure and drag.
  4. The inability to circulate if the pipe sticks.
  5. Frequent bridges on trips.

Even with the challenging wells being drilled today the incident of parted strings occur less often than decades ago. Improved maintenance, inspection procedures, monitoring systems, materials and coatings are all contributing to a reduction in this fishing operations. The biggest challenge when fishing a parted string is in the interpretation of the condition of the top of the fish. A string may part due to any of the following

reasons:

  1. A twist off after the drill string has become stuck.
  2. A washout.
  3. A back lash and subsequent unscrewing of the string.
  4. Junk wearing through a tubular.
  5. Metal fatigue in the string.

Read also Well Control

When working shallow without the benefit of a torque limit switch and if the string becomes stuck, the torque can build up very rapidly in the string and cause a twist off. If a work string is in poor condition a twist off can occur at any depth (with or without a torque limit switch). A twist off can be the most difficult type of fishing job due to the possible condition

of the top of the fish. Turbulent flow of the circulating drilling fluid can damage a connection and cause a washout in the metal of the connection itself. If such a washout is not detected, the drill string can be weakened in the washed out area resulting in the failure of the string component.

A washout in a tubular can in turn washout the formation. This would reduce the annular velocity in the washout area which in turn world diminish hole cleaning. Any time there is a drop in the standpipe pressure that cannot be explained, the string should be pulled immediately.

A string that alternately sticks then releases while drilling forward can result in a buildup of torque which, when released, rotates the lower portion of the string at an accelerated rate. The inertia of the lower portion of the string can make the string back off. In a gauged area of the hole, the string could be screwed back together, but in a washed out area itwill be necessary to run special tools to engage the fish. This can also occur off bottom while

torque is in the string. Junk pushed into a soft formation can later damage tubulars rotating against the junk. It is always better to remove the junk than to push it to the side. Metal fatigue can cause a string to fail under normal operating parameters. Fatigue can be reduced by establishing the working life of string components and replacing them at the appropriate respective time intervals.

In general, parted strings are easier to fish than stuck pipe. However, if a fish is in an open hole, the likelihood of recovery a fish will diminishes with time. If a fish has a connection is facing up, a screw-in assembly with jars should be run. If the fish top cannot be screwed into, an overshot with a jarring assembly should be run. Different types of fishing and jarring assemblies are shown in Figure bellow. The condition of the bottom of the string pulled after a string parts should give an indication of the condition of the top of the fish and, thus, determine what tools should be used for the fishing job. The piece of fish pulled out of the hole should be a reverse mirror image of what the top of the fish looks like.

fishing tools 

PARTING THE PIPE

There are seven options to be considered prior to parting the pipe. These are chemical cut, jet cutter, internal mechanical cutter, outside mechanical cutter, multi-string cutter, severing tool, and washover back-off safety joint/washover procedures.

There are five requirements for a back-off to be successful:

  1. Free pipe: the connection to be backed off must be free.
  2. Torque: the correct amount of left hand torque is required.
  3. Weight: the connection being shot must be at neutral weight.
  4. Shot placement: the short must be fired across the connection.
  5. Shot: use the proper size string shot/prima cord.

Chemical Cut

The first chemical cutter was developed by McCullough Tool Company and used in the field in 1957. Today there are several manufactures of chemical cutters. The chemical cutter is lowered inside the pipe (that is to be cut) to a depth of one or two joints above the stuck point. A collar locator is used to correlate depths. Chemical cuts do not require that the pipe be torqued up. This affords a safer operation and is recommended in bad strings of pipe. Sometimes pipe will rotate freely, even though it cannot be pulled from the hole. This makes it impossible to back off the pipe. The chemical cutter utilizes a blast of powerful acid (at high speed and temperature) to make a smooth cut without flare or distortion to the OD or ID of the pipe.

It will not damage the outer string of casing or tubing making for easy engagement of the pipe being cut.

Jet Cutter

The shaped explosive charges using parabolic geometry were developed after World War I to penetrate thick steel armor. This shaped change was adapted to fit in casing or tubing and became production jet perforating changes that replaced the earlier bullet perforators. Further improvements in the technology allowed the shaped charge concept to be used in a 360◦ circle design that can be used to completely sever a steel tube. Advantages of the jet cutter are that the jet cutter does not have mechanical slips to set so the condition of the tubular being cut, or what the ID is coated with, has little bearing on the operation of the cutting. Jet cutters are shorter in length than a chemical cutter and greater size ranges are available. The disadvantage of a jet cutter is that the pipe being cut will be deformed and must be dressed off before fishing. Also, adjacent strings could be damaged in multiple tubing completed wells.

Internal Mechanical Cutter

The mechanical cutter usually cannot compete with cutters that can be run on wire line due to the cost of trip time. An internal mechanical cutter is shown in Figure bellow. However, if large OD tubulars are being cut a mechanical cutter can be cost effective due to the high  cost of large OD chemical and jet cutters. Also a mechanical cutter can be run in conjunction with a spear which allows cutting and retrieving in a single trip. The mechanical cutter is an option that will has merit in several situations. These are shallow depth cuts, large OD tubular cuts, the need to cut and retrieve in a single trip, and in well conditions too adverse for wireline conveyed cutters. The mechanical cutter is lowered into the hole on a tubular string to the point where the cut is to be made. At this point, right hand rotation will allow the friction assembly to unscrew from the mandrel and a gradual lowering of the tool permits the cone to be driven through the slips thereby anchoring the tool in the pipe. As the slips firmly engage, the wedge block forces the knives outward. This action is continued until the pipe is cut. With the cut complete the pipe is raised, the slips disengage, the knives retracted and the friction assembly returns automatically to the running in position.

A unique feature of this tool is the automatic nut which allows the resetting and disengaging of the tool frequently without coming out of the hole.

Outside Mechanical Cutter

fishing cutter

Figure beside shows a mechanical cutter. Washing over the stuck pipe is done with washover pipe and a rotary shoe slightly larger than the cutter to make a gauge run. When washing over the desired section is completed, the washover pipe is pulled out of the hole and the rotary shoe is replaced with the cutter. The cutter and washpipe are then lowered over the stuck pipe. To operate, the cutter is slowly raised until the dog assembly engages the joint. The string is then lowered slightly to reduce excess pressure on the knives as the cut is started. Rotating the cutter to the right starts the cut. A slight upward pull and slow uniform rotation is maintained while the cut is being made. When the cut is completed, the string is raised, bringing with it the cut off section of pipe which is held in the cutter and washpipe. At the surface the cut off section is stripped out of the washpipe and the process is repeated.

Well Control

Basically, all formations penetrated during drilling are porous and permeable to some degree. Fluids contained in pore spaces are under pressure that is overbalanced by the drilling fluid pressure in the well bore. The borehole pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure plus the friction pressure loss in the annulus. If for some reason the borehole pressure falls below the formation fluid pressure, the formation fluids can enter the well. Such an event is known as a kick. This name is associated with a rather sudden

flowrate increase observed at the surface.

A formation fluid influx (a kick) may result from one of the following reasons:

  • abnormally high formation pressure is encountered
  • lost circulation
  • mud weight too low
  • swabbing in during tripping operations
  • not filling up the hole while pulling out the drillstring
  • recirculating gas or oil cut mud.

If a kick is not controlled properly, a blowout will occur.A blowout may develop for one or more of the following causes:

  • lack of analysis of data obtained from offset wells
  • lack or misunderstanding of data during drilling
  • malfunction or even lack of adequate well control equipment

 SURFACE EQUIPMENT

A formation gas or fluid kick can be efficiently and safely controlled if the proper equipment is installed at the surface. One of several possible arrangement of pressure control equipment is shown in Figure. The blowout preventer (BOP) stack consists of a spherical preventer (i.e.,Hydril) and ram type BOPs with blind rams in one and pipe rams in another with a drilling spool placed in the stack.

A spherical preventer contains a packing element that seals the space around the outside of the drill pipe. This preventer is not designed to shut off the well when the drill pipe is out of the hole. The spherical preventer allows stripping operations and some limited pipe rotation.

wellhead

Hydril Corporation, Shaffer, and other manufactures provide several models with differing packing element designs for specific types of service. The ram type preventer uses two concentric halves to close and seal around the pipe, called pipe rams or blind rams, which seal against the opposing half when there is no pipe in the hole. Some pipe rams will only seal on a single size pipe; 5 in. pipe rams only seal around 5 in. drill pipe. There are also variable bore rams, which cover a specific size range such as 3½ in. to 5 in. that seal on any size pipe in their range.

Care must be taken before closing the blind rams. If pipe is in the hole and the blind rams are closed, the pipe may be damaged or cut. A special type of blind rams that will sever the pipe are called shear blind rams.

These rams will seal against themselves when there is no pipe in the hole, or, in the case of pipe in the hole, the rams will first shear the pipe and then continue to close until they seal the well.

A drilling spool is the element of the BOP stack to which choke and kill lines are attached. The pressure rating of the drilling spool and its side outlets should be consistent with BOP stack. The kill line allows pumping mud into the annulus of the well in the case that is required. The choke line side is connected to a manifold to enable circulation of drilling and formation fluids out of the hole in a controlled manner.

Driller A degasser is installed on the mud return line to remove any small amounts of entrained gas in the returning drilling fluids. Samples of gas are analyzed using the gas chromatograph.

If for some reason the well cannot be shut in, and thus prevents implementation of regular kick killing procedure, a diverter type stack is used rather, the BOP stack described above. The diverter stack is furnished with a blow-down line to allow the well to vent wellbore gas or fluids a safe distance away from the rig. Figure bellow shows a diverter stack arrangement.

Read also about Drilling Bits

WHEN AND HOW TO CLOSE THE WELL

While drilling, there are certain warning signals that, if properly analyzed, can lead to early detection of gas or formation fluid entry into the wellbore.

  1. Drilling break. A relatively sudden increase in the drilling rate is called a drilling break. The drilling break may occur due to a decrease in the difference between borehole pressure and formation pressure. When a drilling break is observed, the pumps should be stopped and the well watched for flow at the mud line. If the well does not flow, it probably means that the overbalance is not lost or simply that a softer formation has be encountered.
  2. Decrease in pump pressure. When less dense formation fluid enters the

borehole, the hydrostatic head in the annulus is decreased. Although reduction in pump pressure may be caused by several other factors, drilling personnel should consider a formation fluid influx into the wellbore as one possible cause. The pumps should be stopped and the return flow mud line watched carefully.

  1. Increase in pit level. This is a definite signal of formation fluid invasion into the wellbore. The well must be shut in as soon as possible.
  2. Gas-cut mud.Whendrilling through gas-bearing formations, small quantities

of gas occur in the cuttings. As these cuttings are circulated up, the annulus, the gas expands. The resulting reduction in mud weight is observed at surface. Stopping the pumps and observing the mud return line help determine whether the overbalance is lost.

If the kick is gained while tripping, the only warning signal we have is an increase in fluid volume at the surface (pit gain). Once it is determined that the pressure overbalance is lost, the well must be closed as quickly as possible. The sequence of operations in closing a well is as follows:

  1. Shut off the mud pumps.
  2. Raise the Kelly above the BOP stack.
  3. Open the choke line
  4. Close the spherical preventer.
  5. Close the choke slowly.
  6. Record the pit level increase.
  7. Record the stabilized pressure on the drill pipe (Stand Pipe) and annulus pressure gauges.
  1. Notify the company personnel.
  2. Prepare the kill procedure.

If the well kicks while tripping, the sequence of necessary steps can be given below:

  1. Close the safety valve (Kelly cock) on the drill pipe.
  2. Pick up and install the Kelly or top drive.
  3. Open the safety valve (Kelly cock).
  4. Open the choke line.
  5. Close the annular (spherical) preventer.
  6. Record the pit gain along with the shut in drill pipe pressure (SIDPP) and shut in casing pressure (SICP).
  1. Notify the company personnel.
  2. Prepare the kill procedure.

Depending on the type of drilling rig and company policy, this sequence of operations may be changed.

Read also Drilling Rotating Equipment

 KICK CONTROL PROCEDURES

There are several techniques available for kick control (kick-killing procedures).

In this section only three methods will be addressed.

  1. Driller’s method. First the kick fluid is circulated out of the hole and hen the drilling fluid density is raised up to the proper density (kill mud density) to replace the original mud. An alternate name for this procedure is the two circulation method.
  2. Engineer’s method. The drilling fluid is weighted up to kill density while the formation fluid is being circulated out of the hole. Sometimes this technique is known as the one circulation method.
  3. Volumetric method. This method is applied if the drillstring is off the bottom.

The guiding principle of all these techniques is that bottomhole pressure is held constant and slightly above the formation pressure at any stage of the process. To choose the most suitable technique one ought to consider

(a) complexity of the method,

(b) drilling crew experience and training,

(c) maximum expected surface and borehole pressure.

(d) Time needed to reestablish pressure overbalance and resume normal drilling operations.

Arabic Drilling Videos

فيديوهات حفر الابار النفطية Arabic Drilling Videos

Drillingيقدم لكم موقع النفط والغاز الطبيعي العربي مجموعة كبيرة من الأفلام التعليمية الخاصة بحفر الآبار النفطية باللغة العربية تم تحميلها وتجميعها من مواقع مختلفة ورفعها الى السيرفرات الخاصة بموقعنا لكي يتسنى لكم تحميلها بشكل مباشر ، كل ما عليك فعله هو النفر على كلمة Download أو Download Link الموجودة أسفل الفيديو المطلوب وسيتم تعزيز مكتبة افلام الحفر هذه بكل ما يتوفر من الأفلام الجديدة إن شاء الله. نتمنى لكم المنفعة والفائدة مع هذه السلسلة:

 

 

مضخات طين الحفر
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عمل أدوات الحفر في برج الحفر
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تنظيف سائل الحفر
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حفر آبار النفط
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ما هي رفسة البئر Oil Well Kick
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حفر آبار النفط – الحفر المائل Directional Drilling
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سمنتة الآبار النفطية Oil Well Cementing
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تغليف البئر أثناء الحفر Oil Well Casing
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يمكنكم زيارة قسم أفلام حفر الآبار النفطية – أكثر من 140 فلم تعليمي عن حفر الآبار النفطية


مجموعة أفلام شركة شلمبرجير :

الجزء الأول – الحلقة الأولى:
أبراج الحفر Drilling Rigs
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الجزء الأول – الحلقة الثانية  
Kelly and Top Drive
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الجزء الأول – الحلقة الثالثة
Drill string Components – part.1
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الجزء الأول – الحلقة الرابعة
Drill string Components – part.2
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الجزء الأول – الحلقة الخامسة
مثقاب الحفر Drilling Bits
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الجزء الأول – الحلقة السادسة 
Special drill String Equipment
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الجزء الثاني – الحلقة الأولى
السيطرة على ضغط البئر Pressure Control
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الجزء الثاني – الحلقة الثانية
مانعات الأنفجار Blow Out Preventers BOPS

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الجزء الثاني – الحلقة الثالث
معدات مانع الانفجار Basic “Blow Out Preventers” BOP Equipment
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الجزء الثاني – الحلقة الرابعة  مانعات الأنفجار في المنصات البحرية Subsea BOP Equipment
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الجزء الثاني – الحلقة الخامسة  
Drill String Valves and IBOPs
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سلسلة شلومبرجر لحفر الآبار النفطية – 10 أقراص CD – تحميل مجاني


كورس Well Control باللغة العربية للمهندس عبدالله محمود :
(1) – Well Control Key Definitions
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(2) – رفسة البئر Well Kick- الجزء الأول  
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(3) – رفسة البئر Well Kick- الجزء الثاني
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(4) – رفسة البئر Well Kick- الجزء الثالث 
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(5) – رفسة البئر Well Kick- الجزء الرابع 
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(6) – رفسة البئر Well Kick- الجزء الخامس
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(7) – رفسة البئر Well Kick- الجزء السادس
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(8) Pump Pressure and APL

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(9)  Kick Warning Signs – part.1  
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(10) Kick Warning Signs – part.2  
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(11) Top Hole Drilling – Part.1
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(12) Top Hole Drilling – Part.2
Download

يرجى تبليغنا عن أي رابط لا يعمل من خلال وضع تعليق أو من خلال الأتصال بفريق عمل الموقع على البريد الألكتروني التالي:
files(at)arab-oil-naturalgas.com

Wells – Chemicals

Chemicals Used in Fracturing

The identities of chemicals incorporated in fracturing fluids were probably the first thing sensationalized about fracturing. The movie “Gasland” created quite a stir with the statement that a “cocktail” of several hundred toxic chemicals were “potentially” used in fracturing. The grain of truth was that there are many chemicals in additives sold for incorporation in fracturing; however; the fact is that most fracs use only a dozen or so major chemicals, some of which are food-grade additives and many are in parts per million concentration. About half of fracturing jobs are “slick water” fracturing fluid that often use low concentrations of two to five chemicals. Many claims of chemical usage also include trace amounts of chemicals at the edge of detection and most well below the EPA’s strictest limits. Analysis of drinking water, for comparison, has shown arsenic, lead, chromium, solvents, gasoline, pesticides, prescription drugs, and a myriad of household products as the most common contaminants – none from fracturing. The upside to this commentary is that public concerns have moved chemical manufacturers to make and operators to use safer chemicals and less overall chemicals. Many companies have moved toward biocides with less residual activity, mechanical biocides such as ultraviolet light and the use of chemicals on the US EPA’s Safer Choice chemicals (formerly Designed For Environment or DfE) or UK North Sea’s OCNS Hazard rating of Gold Band (lowest possible hazard quotient). These listed materials meet requirements of rapid biodegradation and minimum harm to environments.

see our Drilling Video Course

Friction reducer, the largest volume chemical in slick water fracs, is polyacrylate, a polymer whose main use is in baby diaper absorbent and as a drinking water purifier that adsorbs heavy metals. A cross section of chemicals used in fracturing, the volumes used and some alternate uses helps explain oil field fracturing chemical usage. Chemicals such as diesel, benzene and proven carcinogens, mutagens and endocrine disruptors are not used in modern safe fracturing fluids. The CAS number identifies exact identity (no “trade secret” identities).

drilling chemicals

One of the most impactful problems from fracturing in Pennsylvania was the use of local water treating plants to treat water produced from oil and gas wells before disposal into Pennsylvania rivers. The practice was evidently instituted in Pennsylvania decades prior to the shale drilling boom in the Marcellus when volumes of water flowed from conventional wells was very small and natural salt contents were low. Dilution of locally severe acid mine drainage in some creeks by the produced water was expected to be beneficial; however; large volumes of produced water from fracturing in the shales with high salinity and ions such as bromine and barium proved too problematic for such a disposal method. This practice, although allowed by law in Pennsylvania until about 2010, has been forbidden by law in nearly all western states since the 1950’s.

read also Drilling Rotating Equipment

Chemicals Used in Production Operations

Producing oil and gas with the associated salt water from hydrocarbon bearing formations creates corrosion potential, flow restriction deposits such as mineral scales of calcium or barium and challenges in separating oil from water. Corrosion remains one of the biggest deterioration problems in the oil industry (a large problem in other industries as well). Scales may precipitate in tubulars until they restrict flow. Paraffins (wax) are longer carbon chain components of oil and can deposit anywhere in the well as temperatures cool and pressure declines. Mixing of salt water, oil, gas and a small amount of solids such as sand, rust or even ice can produce emulsions, froths and foams that must be separated before the oil and gas can be sold and the salt water can be recycled or properly re-injected into the hydrocarbon producing formation. A wide variety of specialty chemicals, often at part per million (ppm) concentration, can be used, but only a handful of products are typically selected after laboratory testing. Using minimum amounts of the best additives reduces cost and risk in transport or storage.

drilling chemicals

Any chemical usage may be frightening to some people and there are definitely chemicals that should not be used, particularly where contamination or airborne emissions are possible. By using chemicals proven safe for specific uses, all elements of potential pollution are reduced. Even when the chemicals will never be disposed of in the environment outside of oilfield containment, the safe chemical route minimizes impact in the event of a spill or leak.
Note: BTX (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene) content in many additives is steadily declining but some operators have not phased the products out completely. Many companies are reviewing product offerings for the BTX or other troublesome materials and choosing alternatives. Although BTX is often reported in wells as if they were part of a chemical additive, the most likely source is in the produced oil. BTX and diesel range oil components are a natural part of many produced oils.

Drilling Rotating Equipment

Drilling Rotating EquipmentRotating system:
the figure indicate the comparative sizes of the drill pipe and drill collar.

Swivel

♦ The swivel hangs from the drilling hook by means of large bail, or handle. The swivel is not rotate, but allow everything below it to rotate.

♦ Drilling fluid is introduced into the drillstem through a gooseneck connection on the swivel, which is connected to the rotary hose.

Power Swivel

♦ When a ‘top-drive’ system is used, the swivel is replace by power swivel.

♦ The power swivel performs the same functions as the ‘normal swivel’, but it is also associated with a transmission system used to rotate the drill string, instead of the rotary table transmitting this motion.

Read also Testing of Drilling Systems

Kelly

♦ The kelly is approximatel 40 feet long, square or hexagonal on the outside and hollow throughout to provide a passage way for the drilling fluid.

♦ Its outer surfaces engages corresponding square or hexagonal surfaces in the kelly bushing.

♦ The kelly bushing fits into a part of rotary table called master bushing. Powered gears in the rotary table rotate the master bushing, and thus the kelly bushing.

♦ The kelly bushing will rotate the kelly and everything below it to rotate.

Drill String

♦ The drillstring is made up of the drillpipe, drill collars, and specialized subs through which the drilling fluid and rotational power are transmitted from the surface to the bit.

♦ Drill pipe and drill collar come in sections, or joints, about 30 feet long.

♦ The most commonly used diameters of drill pipe are 4, 4½, and 5 inches OD.

♦ The purpose of drill collars is to put extra weight on he bit, so they are usually larger in diameter than drill pipe and have thicker walls.

Rotating Equipment: Drill String

♦ Drill pipe and drill collars have threaded connection on each end.

♦ On drill pipe the threaded connection are called tool joints. Tool joints are steel rings that are welded to each end of a joint of drill pipe. One tool joints is a pin (male) connection, and the other is a box (female) connection.

♦ Specialized Subs: The word “sub” refers to any short length of pipe, collar, casing, etc., with a definite function.

Drill Bit

Read a full article about Drilling Bits

♦ At the bottom of drillstring is a the bit, which drills the formation rock.

♦ Most common types are roller cone bits and diamond bits.

♦ The bit size: range from 3¾ inches (9.5 cm) to 26 inches (66 cm) in diameters. The most commonly used sizes are 17½, 12¼, 77/8, and 6 ¼ inches (44, 31, 20, and 16 cm).

♦ Roller cone bits usually have three cone-shaped steel devices that are free to turn as the bit rotates.

♦ Several rows of teeth, or cutters, on each cone scrape, gouge, or crush the formation as the teeth roll over it.

♦ Two types: milled teeth and tungsten carbide inserts.

♦ Most roller cone bits are jet bits: drilling fluid exits from the bit through nozzles between the cone, thus create high velocity jets of mud. This will help lift cuttings away from the bit.

Circulating System
There are a number of main objectives of this system:

♦ Cooling and lubricating the drill bit.

♦ Controlling well pressure.

♦ Removing debris and cuttings.

♦ Coating the walls of the well with a mud cake.

– The circulating system consists of drilling fluid, which is circulated down through the well hole.

– The most common liquid drilling fluid, known as ‘mud’, may contain clay, chemicals, weighting materials, water
and oil.

– The circulating system consists of a starting point, the mud pit, where the drilling fluid ingredients are stored.

 – Mixing takes place at the mud mixing hopper, from which the fluid is forced through pumps up to the swivel and down all the way through the drill pipe, emerging through the drill bit itself.

– From there, the drilling fluid circulates through the bit, picking up debris and drill cuttings, to be circulated back up the well, traveling between the drill string and the walls of the well (also called the ‘annular space’).

– Once reaching the surface, the drilling fluid is filtered to recover the reusable fluid.

Drilling Circulating System

Oil-Base and Synthetic-Base Muds

Drilling Mud Tests

The field tests for rheology, mud density, and gel strength are accomplished in the same manner as outlined for water-based drilling mud. The main difference is that rheology is tested at a specific temperature, usually 120◦F or
150◦F. Because oils tend to thin with temperature, heating fluid is required and should be reported on the API Mud Report.
see our Drilling Fluids Books section

Sand Content
Sand content measurement is the same as for water-base drilling mud except that the mud’s base oil instead of water should be used for dilution. The sand content of oil-base mud is not generally tested.
HPHT Filtration The API filtration test result for oil-base drilling mud is usually zero. In relaxed filtrate oil-based muds, the API filtrate should be all oil. The API test does not indicate downhole filtration rates. The alternative high-temperature–high pressure (HTHP) filtration test will generally give a better indication of the fluid loss characteristics of a fluid under downhole temperatures The instruments for the HTHP filtration test consists essentially of a controlled pressure source, a cell designed towithstand a working pressure of at least 1,000 psi, a system for heating the cell, and a suitable frame to hold the cell and the heating system. For filtration tests at temperatures above 200◦F, a pressurized collection cell is attached to the delivery tube.
The filter cell is equipped with a thermometer well, oil-resistant gaskets, and a support for the filter paper (Whatman no. 50 or the equivalent). A valve on the filtrate delivery tube controls flow from the cell. A nonhazardous
gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide should be used as the pressure source. The test is usually performed at a temperature of 220 – 350◦F and a pressure of 500 psi (differential) over a 30-minute period. When other temperatures, pressures, or times are used, their values should be reported together with test results. If the cake compressibility is desired, the test should be repeated with pressures of 200 psi on the filter cell and
100 psi back pressure on the collection cell. The volume of oil collected at the end of the test should be doubled to correct to a surface area of 7.1 inches.

read also Testing of Drilling Systems

Electrical Stability
The electrical stability test indicates the stability of emulsions of water inoilmixtures. The emulsion tester consists of a reliable circuit using a source of variable AC current (or DC current in portable units) connected to strip electrodes . The voltage imposed across the electrodes can be increased until a predetermined amount of current flows through the drilling mud emulsion-breakdown point. Relative stability is indicated as the voltage at the breakdown point and is reported as the electric stability of the fluid on the daily API test report.

Liquids and Solids Content
Oil, water, and solids volume percent is determined by retort analysis as in a water-base drilling mud. More time is required to get a complete distillation of an oil mud than for a water mud. The corrected water phase volume, the volume percent of low-gravity solids, and the oil-to-water ratio can then be calculated.

The volume oil-to-water ratio can be found from the procedure below:

Oil fraction 100 × % by volume oil or synthetic oil / (% by volume oil or synthetic oil−% by volume water)

Chemical analysis procedures for nonaqueous fluids can be found in the API 13B bulletin available from the American Petroleum Institute.

Alkalinity and Lime Content (NAF)
The whole mud alkalinity test procedure is a titration method that measures the volume of standard acid required to react with the alkaline (basic) materials in an oil mud sample.
The alkalinity value is used to calculate the pounds per barrel of unreacted, “excess” lime in an oil mud. Excess alkaline materials, such as lime, help to stabilize the emulsion and neutralize carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide
acidic gases.

Total Salinity (Water-Phase Salinity [WAF] for NAF)
The salinity control ofNAFfluids is very important for stabilizing water-sensitive shales and clays. Depending on the ionic concentration of the shale waters and of the drilling mud water phase, an osmotic flow of pure water from the weaker
salt concentration (in shale) to the stronger salt concentration (in mud) will occur. This may cause dehydration of the shale and, consequently, affect its stabilization

Specialized Tests
Other, more advanced laboratory-based testing is commonly carried out on drilling fluids to determine treatments or to define contaminants. Some of the more advanced analytical tests routinely conducted on drilling fluids include:

Advanced Rheology and Suspension Analysis
FANN 50 — A laboratory test for rheology under temperature and moderate pressure (up to 1,000 psi and 500◦F).
FANN 70 — Laboratory test for rheology under high temperature and high pressure (up to 20,000 psi and 500◦F).
FANN 75 — Amore advanced computer-controlled version of the FANN 70 (up to 20,000 psi and 500◦F).

High-Angle Sag Test (HAST)
A laboratory test device to determine the suspension properties of a fluid in high-angle wellbores. This test is designed to evaluate particle setting characteristics of a fluid in deviated wells.

Drilling Mud
Salt Saturation Curves

Dynamic HAST
Laboratory test device to determine the suspension properties of a drilling fluid under high angle and dynamic conditions.

Specialized Filtration Testing
FANN 90 Dynamic filtration testing of a drilling fluid under pressure and temperature. This test determines if the fluid is properly conditioned to drill through highly permeable formations. The test results include two numbers: the dynamic filtration rate and the cake deposition index (CDI).
The dynamic filtration rate is calculated from the slope of the curve of volume versus time. The CDI, which reflects the erodability of the wall cake, is calculated from the slope of the curve of volume/time versus time. CDI and dynamic filtration rates are calculated using data collected after twenty minutes. The filtration media for the FAN 90 is a synthetic core. The core size can be sized for each application to optimize the filtration rate.

Particle-PluggingTest (PPT)
The PPT test is accomplishedwith a modified HPHT cell to examine sealing characteristics of a drilling fluid. The
PPT, sometimes known as the PPA (particle-plugging apparatus), is key when drilling in high-differential-pressure environments.

Aniline Point Test
Determine the aniline point of an oil-based fluid base oil. This test is critical to ensure elastomer compatibility when using nonaqueous fluids.

Particle-Size Distribution (PSD) Test
The PSD examines the volume and particle sizedistribution of solidsinafluid.This test is valuable indetermining
the type and size of solids control equipment that will be needed to properly clean a fluid of undesirable solids.

Luminescence Fingerprinting
This test is used to determine if contamination of a synthetic-based mud has occurredwith crude oil during drilling
operations.

Lubricity Testing
Various lubricity meters and devices are available to the industry to determine how lubricous a fluid is when exposed to steel or shale. In high-angle drilling applications, a highly lubricious fluid is desirable to allow proper transmission of weight to the bit and reduce side wall sticking tendencies.

Testing of Drilling Systems

drill mudTo properly control the hole cleaning, suspension, and filtration properties of a drilling fluid, testing of the fluid properties is done on a daily basis. Most tests are conducted at the rig site, and procedures are set forth in the API RPB13B. Testing of water-based fluids and nonaqueous fluids can be similar, but variations of procedures occur due to the nature of the fluid being tested.

Water-Base Muds Testing
To accurately determine the physical properties of water-based drilling fluids, examination of the fluid is required in a field laboratory setting. In many cases, this consists of a few simple tests conducted by the derrickman or mud Engineer at the rigsite. The procedures for conducting all routine drilling fluid testing can be found in the American Petroleum Institute’s API RPB13B.

Density Often referred to as themudweight, densitymaybe expressed as pounds per gallon (lb/gal), pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3), specific gravity (SG) or pressure gradient (psi/ft). Any instrument of sufficient accuracy within ±0.1 lb/gal or ±0.5 lb/ft3 may be used. The mud balance is the instrument most commonly used. The weight of a mud cup attached to one end of the beam is balanced on the other end by a fixed counterweight and a rider free to move along a graduated scale. The density of the fluid is a direct reading from the scales located on both sides of the mud balance .
Marsh Funnel Viscosity
Drilling Mud testMud viscosity is a measure of the mud’s resistance to flow. The primary function of drilling fluid viscosity is a to transport cuttings to the surface and suspend weighing materials. Viscosity must be high enough that the weighting material will remain suspended but low enough to permit sand and cuttings to settle out and entrained gas to escape at the surface. Excessive viscosity can create high pump pressure, which magnifies the swab or surge effect during tripping operations. The control of equivalent circulating density (ECD) is always a prime concern when managing the viscosity of a drilling fluid. The Marsh funnel is a rig site instrument used to measure funnel viscosity. The funnel is dimensioned so that by following standard procedures, the outflow time of 1 qt (946 ml) of freshwater at a temperature of 70±5◦F is 26±0.5 seconds. A graduated cup is used as a receiver.

Direct Indicating Viscometer
This is a rotational type instrument powered by an electric motor or by a hand crank . Mud is contained in the annular space between two cylinders. The outer cylinder or rotor sleeve is driven at a constant rotational velocity; its rotation in the mud produces a torque on the inner cylinder or bob. A torsion spring restrains the movement of the bob. A dial attached to the bob indicates its displacement on a direct reading scale. Instrument constraints have been adjusted so that plastic viscosity, apparent viscosity, and yield point are obtained by using readings from rotor sleeve speeds of 300 and 600 rpm.
Plastic viscosity (PV) in centipoise is equal to the 600 rpm dial reading minus the 300 rpm dial reading. Yield point (YP), in pounds per 100 ft2, is equal to the 300-rpm dial reading minus the plastic viscosity. Apparent viscosity in centipoise is equal to the 600-rpm reading, divided by two.

Gel Strength
Gel strength is a measure of the inter-particle forces and indicates the gelling thatwill occur when circulation is stopped. This property prevents the cuttings from setting in the hole. High pump pressure is generally required to “break” circulation in a high-gel mud. Gel strength is measured in units of lbf/100 ft2. This reading is obtained by noting the maximum dial deflection when the rotational viscometer is turned at a low rotor speed (3 rpm) after the mud has remained static for some period of time (10 seconds, 10 minutes, or 30 minutes). If the mud is allowed
to remain static in the viscometer for a period of 10 seconds, the maximum dial deflection obtained when the viscometer is turned on is reported as the initial gel on the API mud report form. If the mud is allowed to remain static for 10 minutes, the maximumdial deflection is reported as the 10-min gel. The same device is used to determine gel strength that is used to determine the plastic viscosity and yield point, the Variable Speed
Rheometer/Viscometer.

API Filtration
A standard API filter press is used to determine the filter cake building characteristics and filtration of a drilling fluid
The API filter press consists of a cylindrical mud chamber made of materials resistant to strongly alkaline solutions. A filter paper is placed on the bottom of the chamber just above a suitable support. The total filtration area is 7.1
(±0.1) in.2. Below the support is a drain tube for discharging the filtrate into a graduated cylinder. The entire assembly is supported by a stand so 100-psi pressure can be applied to the mud sample in the chamber. At the end of the 30-minute filtration time, the volume of filtrate is reported as API filtration in milliliters. To obtain correlative results, one thickness of the proper 9-cm filter paper—Whatman No. 50, S&S No. 5765, or the equivalent—must be
used. Thickness of the filter cake is measured and reported in 32nd of an inch. The cake is visually examined, and its consistency is reported using such notations as “hard,” “soft,” tough,” ’‘rubbery,” or “firm.”

Sand Content
The sand content in drilling fluids is determined using a 200-mesh sand sieve screen 2 inches in diameter, a funnel to fit the screen, and a glass-sand graduated measuring tube . The measuring tube is marked to indicate the volume of “mud to be added,” water to be added and to directly read the volume of sand on the bottom of the tube.
Sand content of the mud is reported in percent by volume. Also reported is thepoint of sampling (e.g., flowline, shale shaker, suctionpit). Solids other than sand may be retained on the screen (e.g., lost circulation material), and
the presence of such solids should be noted.

Liquids and Solids Content
A mud retort is used to determine the liquids and solids content of a drilling fluid. Mud is placed in a steel container and heated at high temperature until the liquid components have been distilled off and vaporized. The vapors are passed through a condenser and collected in a graduated cylinder. The volume of liquids
(water and oil) is then measured. Solids, both suspended and dissolved, are determined by volume as a difference between the mud in container and the distillate in graduated cylinder. Drilling fluid retorts are generally
designed to distill 10-, 20-, or 50-ml sample volumes.

For freshwater muds, a rough measure of the relative amounts of barite and clay in the solids can be made (Table 1.1). Because both suspended and dissolved solids are retained in the retort for muds containing substantial
quantities of salt, corrections must be made for the salt. Relative amounts of high- and low-gravity solids contained in drilling fluids can be found in Table 1.1.

pH
Two methods for measuring the pH of drilling fluid are commonly used: (1) a modified colorimetric method using pH paper or strips and (2) the electrometric method using a glass electrode . The paper strip test may not be reliable if the salt concentration of the sample is high.
The electrometric method is subject to error in solutions containing high concentrations of sodium ions unless a special glass electrode is used or unless suitable correction factors are applied if an ordinary electrode is used. In addition, a temperature correction is required for the electrometric method of measuring pH.
The paper strips used in the colorimetric method are impregnated with dyes so that the color of the test paper depends on the pH of the medium in which the paper is placed. A standard color chart is supplied for comparison
with the test strip. Test papers are available in a wide range, which permits estimating pH to 0.5 units, and in narrow range papers, with which the pH can be estimated to 0.2 units.
The glass electrode pH meter consists of a glass electrode, an electronic amplifier, and a meter calibrated in pH units. The electrode is composed of (1) the glass electrode, a thin-walled bulb made of special glass within
which is sealed a suitable electrolyte and an electrode, and (2) the reference electrode, which is a saturated calomel cell. Electrical connection with the mud is established through a saturated solution of potassium chloride
contained in a tube surrounding the calomel cell. The electrical potential generated in the glass electrode system by the hydrogen ions in the drilling mud is amplified and operates the calibrated pH meter.

Resistivity
Control of the resistivity of the mud and mud filtrate while drilling may be desirable to permit enhanced evaluation of the formation characteristics from electric logs. The determination of resistivity is essentially the measurement of the resistance to electrical current flow through a known sample configuration. Measured resistance is converted to resistivity by use of a cell constant. The cell constant is fixed by the configuration of the sample in the cell and id determined by calibration with standard solutions of known resistivity. The resistivity is expressed in ohm-meters.

Filtrate Chemical Analysis
Standard chemical analyses have been developed for determining the concentration of various ions present in the mud. Tests for the concentration of chloride, hydroxyl, and calcium ions are required to fill out the API drilling mud report. The tests are based on filtration (i.e., reaction of a known volume of mud filtrate sample with a standard solution of known volume and concentration). The end of chemical reaction is usually indicated by the change of color. The concentration of the ion being tested can be determined from a knowledge of the chemical reaction taking place.

Chloride
The chloride concentration is determined by titration with silver nitrate solution. This causes the chloride to be removed from the solution as AgCl−, a white precipitate. The endpoint of the titration is detected using a potassium chromate indicator. The excess Ag present after all Cl− has been removed fromsolution reactswith the chromate to formAg9CrO4, an orange-red precipitate. Contamination with chlorides generally results from drilling salt or from a saltwater flow. Salt can enter and contaminate themudsystem when salt formations are drilled and when saline formation water enters the wellbore.

Alkalinity and Lime Content
Alkalinity is the ability of a solution or mixture to react with an acid. The phenolphthalein alkalinity refers to the
amount of acid required to reduce the pH of the filtrate to 8.3, the phenolphthalein end point. The phenolphthalein alkalinity of the mud and mud filtrate is called the Pm and Pf , respectively. The Pf test includes the effect of only dissolved bases and salts, whereas the Pm test includes the effect of both dissolved and suspended bases and salts. The m and f indicate if the test was conducted on the whole mud or mud filtrate. The Mf alkalinity refers to the amount of acid required to reduce the pH to 4.3, the methyl orange end point. The methyl orange alkalinity of the mud and mud filtrate is called the Mm and Mf , respectively. The API diagnostic tests include the determination of Pm, Pf , and Mf . All values are reported in cubic centimeters of 0.02N (normality= 0.02) sulfuric acid per cubic centimeter of sample. The lime content of the mud is calculated by subtracting the Pf from the Pm and dividing the result by 4.
The Pf and Mf tests are designed to establish the concentration of hydroxyl, bicarbonate, and carbonate ions in the aqueous phase of the mud. At a pH of 8.3, the conversion of hydroxides to water and carbonates to bicarbonates
is essentially complete. The bicarbonates originally present in solution do not enter the reactions. As the pH is further reduced to 4.3, the acid reacts with the bicarbonate ions to form carbon dioxide and water.
ml N/50H2SO4 to reach pH=8.3
CO 3(-2) +H2SO4→HCO3(-) +HSO4
carbonate+acid→bicarbonate+bisulfate
OH−+H2SO4→HOH+SO4=  hydroxyl+acid→water+sulfate salt
The Pf and Pm test results indicate the reserve alkalinity of the suspended solids. As the [OH−] in solution is reduced, the lime and limestone suspended in the mud will go into solution and tend to stabilize the pH
(Table 1.2). This reserve alkalinity generally is expressed as an excess lime concentration, in lb/bbl of mud. The accurate testing of Pf, Mf , and Pm are needed to determine the quality and quantity of alkaline material present
in the drilling fluid. The chart below shows how to determine the hydroxyl, carbonate, and bicarbonate ion concentrations based on these titrations.

Total Hardness
The total combined concentration of calcium and magnesium in the mud-water phase is defined as total hardness. These contaminants are often present in the water available for use in the drilling fluid makeup. In addition, calcium can enter the mud when anhydrite (CaSO4) or gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2O) formations are drilled. Cement also contains
calcium and can contaminate the mud. The total hardness is determined by titration with a standard (0.02 N) versenate hardness titrating solution (EDTA). The standard versenate solution contains sodium versenate, an
organic compound capable of forming a chelate when combined with Ca2 and Mg2.
The hardness test sometimes is performed on the whole mud as well as the mud filtrate. The mud hardness indicates the amount of calcium suspended in the mud and the amount of calcium in solution. This test usually is made on gypsum-treated muds to indicate the amount of excess CaSO4 present in suspension. To perform the hardness test on mud, a small sample of mud is first diluted to 50 times its original volume with distilled water so that any undissolved calcium or magnesium compounds can go into solution. The mixture then is filtered through hardened filter paper to obtain a clear filtrate. The total hardness of this filtrate then is obtained using the same procedure used for the filtrate from the low-temperature, low-pressure API filter press apparatus.

Methylene Blue Capacity (CEC or MBT)
It is desirable to know the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the drilling fluid. To some extent, this value can be correlated to the bentonite content of the mud. The test is only qualitative because organic material and other clays present in the mud also absorb methylene blue dye. The mud sample is treated with hydrogen peroxide to oxidize most of the organic material. The cation exchange capacity is reported in milliequivalent weights (mEq) of methylene blue dye per 100 ml of mud. The methylene blue solution used for titration is usually 0.01 N, so that the cation exchange capacity is numerically equal to the cubic centimeters of methylene blue solution per cubic centimeter of sample required to reach an end point. If other adsorptive materials are not present in significant quantities, the montmorillonite content of the mud in pounds per barrel is calculated to be five times the cation exchange capacity.
The methylene blue test can also be used to determine cation exchange capacity of clays and shales. In the test, a weighed amount of clay is dispersed into water by a high-speed stirrer ormixer. Titration is carried out as
for drilling muds, except that hydrogen peroxide is not added. The cation exchange capacity of clays is expressed as milliequivalents of methylene blue per 100 g of clay.

Oil Well Planning

Drilling optimization requires detailed engineering in all aspects of well planning, drilling implementation, and post-run evaluation Effective well planning optimizes the boundaries, constraints, learning, nonproductive time, and limits and uses new technologies as well as tried and true methods. Use of decision support packages, which document the reasoning behind the decision-making, is key to shared learning and continuous improvement processes. It is critical to anticipate potential difficulties, to understand their consequences, and to be prepared with
contingency plans. Post-run evaluation is required to capture learning.
Drilling Planning

Many of the processes used are the same as used during the well planning phase, but are conducted using new data from the recent drilling events. Depending on the phase of planning and whether you are the operator
or a service provider, some constraints will be out of your control to alter or influence (e.g., casing point selection, casing sizes, mud weights, mud types, directional plan, drilling approach such as BHA types or new technology
use). There is significant value inbeing able to identify alternate possibilities for improvement over current methods, but well planning must consider future availability of products and services for possible well interventions.
When presented properly to the groups affected by the change, it is possible to learn why it is not feasible or to alter the plan to cause improvement. Engineers must understand and identify the correct applications for technologies to reduce costs and increase effectiveness.Acorrect application understands the tradeoffs of risk versus rewardandcosts versus benefits.

Boundaries Boundaries are related to the “rules of the game” established by the company or companies involved. Boundaries are criteria established by management as “required outcomes or processes” and may relate to
behaviors, costs, time, safety, and production targets.
Constraints Constraints during drilling may be preplanned trip points for logs, cores, casing, and BHA or bit changes. Equipment, information, human resource knowledge, skills and availability, mud changeover, and dropping balls for downhole tools are examples of constraints on the plan and its implementation.
The Learning Curve Optimization’s progress can be tracked using learning curves that chart the performance measures deemed most effective for the situation and then applying this knowledge to subsequent wells.
Learning curves provide a graphic approach to displaying the outcomes. Incremental learning produces an exponential curve slope. Step changes may be caused by radically new approaches or unexpected trouble. With
understanding and planning, the step change will more likely be in a positive direction, imparting huge savings for this and future wells. The curve slope defines the optimization rate. The learning curve can be used to demonstrate the overall big picture or a small component that affects the overall outcome. In either case, the curve measures the rate of change of the parameter you choose, typically the “performance measures” established by you and your team. Each performance measure is typically plotted against time, perhaps the chronological order of wells drilled as shown in figure below:

Cost Estimating Oneof the mostcommonand critical requests of drilling engineers is to provide accurate cost estimates, or authority for expenditures (AFEs). The key is to use a systematic and repeatable approach that takes
into account all aspects of the client’s objectives. These objectives must be clearly defined throughout the organization before beginning the optimization and estimating process. Accurate estimating is essential to maximizing a company’s resources. Overestimating a project’s cost can tie up capital that could be used elsewhere, and underestimating can create budget shortfalls affecting overall economics.
Integrated Software Packages With the complexity of today’s wells, it is advantageous to use integrated software packages to help design all aspects of the well. Examples of these programs include

• Casing design
• Torque and drag
• Directional planning
• Hydraulics
• Cementing
• Well control
Decision Support Packages Decision support packages document the reasoning behind the decisions that are made, allowing other people to understand the basis for the decisions. When future well requirements change, a decision trail is available that easily identifies when new choices may be needed and beneficial.
Performance Measures Common drilling optimization performance measures are cost per foot of hole drilled, cost per foot per casing interval, trouble time, trouble cost, and AFEs versus actual costs.
Systems Approach Drilling requires the use of many separate pieces of equipment, but they must function as one system. The borehole should be included in the system thinking. The benefit is time reduction, safety improvement, and production increases as the result of less nonproductive time and faster drilling. For example, when an expected average rate of penetration (ROP) and a maximum instantaneous ROP have been identified, it is possible to ensure that the tools and borehole will be able to support that as a plan. Bit capabilities must be matched to the rpm, life, and formation. Downhole motors must provide the desired rpm and power at the flow rate being programmed. Pumps must be able to provide the flow rate and pressure as planned.
Nonproductive Time Preventing trouble events is paramount to achieving cost control and is arguably the most important key to drilling a cost-effective, safe well. Troubles are “flat line” time, a terminology emanating from the days versus depth curve when zero depth is being accomplished for a period of days, creating a horizontal line on the graph. Primary problems invariably cause more serious associated problems. For example, surge pressures can cause lost circulation, which is the most common cause of blowouts. Excessive mud weight can cause differential sticking, stuck pipe, loss of hole, and sidetracking. Wellbore instability can cause catastrophic loss of entire hole sections. Key seating and pipe washouts can cause stuck pipe and a fishing job.
When a trouble event leads to a fishing job, “fishing economics” should be performed. This can help eliminate emotional decisions that lead to overspending. Several factors should be taken into account when determining
whether to continue fishing or whether to start in the first place.
The most important of these are replacement or lost-in-hole cost of tools and equipment, historical success rates (if known), and spread rate cost of daily operations. These can be used to determine a risk-weighted value of
fishing versus the option to sidetrack.
Operational inefficiencies are situations for which better planning and implementation could have saved timeandmoney. Sayings such as“makin’ hole” and “turnin’ to the right” are heard regularly in the drilling business.
These phases relate the concept of maximizing progress. Inefficiencies which hinder progress include
• Poor communications
• No contingency plans and “waiting on orders” (WOO)
• Trips
• Tool failure
• Improper WOB and rpm (magnitude and consistency)
• Mud properties that may unnecessarily reduce ROP (spurt loss, water loss and drilled solids)
• Surface pump capacities, pressure and rate (suboptimum liner selection and too small pumps, pipe, drill collars)
• Poor matching of BHA components (hydraulics, life, rpm, and data acquisition rates)
• Survey time
Limits Each well to be drilled must have a plan. The plan is a baseline expectation for performance (e.g., rotating hours, number of trips, tangibles cost). The baseline can be taken from the learning curves of the best experience that characterizes the well to be drilled. The baseline may be a widely varying estimate for an exploration well or a highly refined measure in a developed field. Optimization requires identifying and improving on the limits that play the largest role in reducing progress for the well being planned. Common limits include
1. Hole Size. Hole size in the range of 7 7/8 – 8 1/2 in. is commonly agreed to be the most efficient and cost-effective hole size to drill, considering numerous criteria, including hole cleaning, rock volume drilled, downhole tool life, bit life, cuttings handling, and drill string handling. Actual hole sizes drilled are typically determined by the size of production tubing required, the required number of casing points, contingency strings, and standard casing decision trees. Company standardization programs for casing, tubing, and bits may limit available choices.
2. Bit Life. Measures of bit life vary depending on bit type and application. Roller cones in soft to medium-soft rock often use KREVs (i.e., total revolutions, stated in thousands of revolutions). This measure fails to consider the effect ofWOBon bearing wear, but soft formations typically use medium to high rpm and low WOB; therefore, this measure has become most common. Roller cones in medium to hard rock often use a multiplication of WOB and total revolutions, referred to as the WR or WN number, depending on bit vender. Roller cone bits smaller than 7 7/8 in. suffer significant reduction in bearing life, tooth life, tooth size, and ROP. PDC bits, impregnated bits, natural diamond bits, and TSP bits typically measure in terms if bit hours and KREVs. Life of all bits is severely reduced by vibration. Erosion can wear bit teeth or the bit face that holds the cutters, effectively reducing bit life.
3. Hole Cleaning. Annular velocity (AV) rules of thumb have been used to suggest hole-cleaning capacity, but each of several factors, including mud properties, rock properties, hole angle, and drill string rotation, must be considered. Directional drilling with steerable systems require “sliding” (not rotating) the drill string during the orienting stage; hole cleaning can suffer drastically at hole angles greater than 50. Hole cleaning in large-diameter holes, even if vertical, is difficult merely because of the fast drilling formations and commonly low AV.
4. Rock Properties. It is fundamental to understand formation type, hardness, and characteristics as they relate to drilling and production. From a drilling perspective, breaking down and transporting rock (i.e., hole cleaning) is required. Drilling mechanics must be matched to the rock mechanics. Bit companies can be supplied with electric logs and associated data so that drill bit types and operating parameters can be recommended that will match the rock mechanics. Facilitating maximum production capacity is given a higher priority through the production zones. This means drilling gage holes,minimizing formation damage (e.g., clean mud, less exposure time), and facilitating effective cement jobs.
5. Weight on Bit. WOB must be sufficient to overcome the rock strength, but excessive WOB reduces life through increased bit cutting structure and bearing wear rate (for roller cone bits). WOB can be expressed in terms of weight per inch of bit diameter. The actual range used depends on the “family” of bit selected and, to some extent, the rpm used. Families are defined as natural diamond, PDC, TSP (thermally stable polycrystalline), impregnated, mill tooth, and insert.
6. Revolutions per Minute (rpm). Certain ranges of rpm have proved to be prudent for bits, tools, drill strings, and the borehole. Faster rpm normally increases ROP, but life of the product or downhole assembly may be severely reduced if rpm is arbitrarily increased too high. A too-low rpm can yield slower than effective ROP and may provide insufficient hole cleaning and hole pack off, especially in high-angle wells.
7. Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD). ECDs become critical when drilling in a soft formation environment where the fracture gradient is not much larger than the pore pressure. Controlling ROP, reducing pumping flow rate, drill pipe OD, and connection OD may all be considered or needed to safely drill the interval.
8. Hydraulic System. The rig equipment (e.g., pumps, liners, engines or motors, drill string, BHA) may be a given. In this case, optimizing the drilling plan based on its available capabilities will be required.
However, if you can demonstrate or predict an improved outcome that would justify any incremental costs, then you will have accomplished additional optimization. The pumps cannot provide their rated horsepower
if the engines providing power to the pumps possess inadequate mechanical horsepower. Engines must be down rated for efficiency.
Changing pump liners is a simple cost-effective way to optimize the hydraulic system. Optimization involves several products and services and the personnel representatives.This increases the difficulty to achieve an optimized parameter selection that is best as a system.

New Technologies

Positive step changes reflected in the learning curve are often the result of effective implementation of new technologies:
1. Underbalanced Drilling. UBD is implemented predominantly to maximize the production capacity variable of the well’s optimization by minimizing formation damage during the drilling process. Operationally, the pressure of the borehole fluid column is reduced to less than the pressure in the ZOI. ROP is also substantially increased. Often,
coiled tubing is used to reduce the tripping and connection time and mitigate safety issues of “snubbing” joints of pipe.
2. Surface Stack Blowout Preventer (BOP). The use of a surface stack BOP configurations in floating drilling is performed by suspending the BOP stack above the waterline and using high-pressure risers (typically 13 3/8 in. casing) as a conduit to the sea floor. This method, generally used in benign and moderate environments, has saved considerable time and money in water depths to 6,000 ft.
3. Expandable Drilling Liners. EDLs can be used for several situations. The casing plan may startwith a smaller diameter than usual, while finishing in the production zone as a large, or larger, final casing diameter. Future advances may allow setting numerous casing strings in succession, all of the exact same internal diameter. The potential as a step change technology for optimizing drilling costs and mitigating risks is phenomenal.
4. Rig Instrumentation. The efficient and effective application of weight to the bit and the control of downhole vibration play a key role in drilling efficiency. Excessive WOB applied can cause axial vibration, causing destructive torsional vibrations. Casing handling systems and top drives are effective tools.
5. Real-Time Drilling Parameter Optimization. Downhole and surface vibration detection equipment allows for immediatemitigation. Knowing actual downhole WOB can provide the necessary information to perform improved drill-off tests .
6. Bit Selection Processes. Most bit venders are able to use the electric log data (Sonic,GammaRay, Resistivity as aminimum)and associated offset information to improve the selection of bit cutting structures. Formation
type, hardness, and characteristics are evaluated and matched to the application needs as an optimization process.

Drilling Fluids

drilling mudTheory and Applications of Drilling Fluid Hydraulics
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Drilling Fluids Manual
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Drilling Fluids Manual from MI Swaco
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Amoco – Drilling Fluid Manual
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Drilling Fluids Technology
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Drilling Fluids Processing Handbook
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  Drilling Fluids & Health Risk Management
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Development of Water-Based Drilling Fluids customized for Shale Reservoirs
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    Drilling Fluid manual from Schlumberger
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Exercises within Drilling Fluid Engineering
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Drilling Fluids Engineering Manual
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Drilling Fluids
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Drilling Fluids Awareness Campaign Workbook
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Advances in Drilling Hydraulics and Drilling Fluid Rheology
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 Properties of Drilling Fluids
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Drilling Fluids
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Drilling Fluids Circulation System
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Drilling Fluids for Horizontal Wells
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Exercises in Drilling Fluid Engineering
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Preparation of Drilling Fluids
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Particle Size Analysis for Drilling Fluids  
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Drilling Fluids B1 Compressed File 100 MB
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Drilling Muds

Drilling Mud Training  Power Point
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  Drilling Mud Technology
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    Mud Logger
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  Basic Mud Logging  14 MB
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Basic Mud Logging  2 MB
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  Mud Flow Sensor
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   Mud Engineering
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  Drilling Mud
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   Mud Logging
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  Mud Flow Proximity sensor Manual
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  Mud Logging Introduction (without mud logging knowledge)
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Mud Logging Theory, Lag Calculations
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    Mud Logging Definitions
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     Gas Cut Mud
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  Drilling Fluids Reference Manual
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Wastewater Management of Drilling Fluids and Cuttings
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Basic Mud Logging Guide  41 MB Download

OilWell Drilling Books Page.5

drillingthe biggest collection of oil well drilling books such as Drilling bits, Drilling Fluids, and Casing, links updated from time to time, all you have to do is to click on the icon under the required book name:

  Casing Dimensions, Materials and Strength

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 Drill Bit Technology

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  Drilling Fluids Presentation   

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  Introduction to Directional Drilling

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  Well head Components

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  BOPE – Description and Selection

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Casing Heads

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Coordinates Systems
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Drill Bits Hydraulics Calculations
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  Drilling Fluids
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  Principles of Rheology
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   SLP Well Coordinates and Directions
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  Bit Hydraulics Optimization
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  BOPE – Testing Procedures

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Cementing Flashs

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Operation of Downhole Motor
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 Side Track Procedures
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MWD and LWD Measurement Tables
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 Shocks and Vibrations
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Anti Collision
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Well Design Fundamentals
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Well Planning
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Drilling Manual Planning
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Well Cementing Part.1
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Well Cementing Part.2
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Horizontal Directional Drilling Guidelines
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Well Control Methods
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Drilling Calculations part.1
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Quick Drilling Calculations
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Technical Data Book for Well Control
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Pressure Control During Oil Well Drilling
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Wellhead Safety
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Acidizing
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Well Control Equations
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Modern Well Test Analysis
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MWD
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Drilling preliminaries
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Subsurface Safety Equipment
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Drilling Data Handbook DDH

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Weatherford Casing Hardware
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What is Wellhead?
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Oil and Gas Well Drilling Illustrated Glossary RAR
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Managing Drilling Operations Ken Fraser

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the biggest collection of oil well drilling books such as Drilling bits, Managed Pressure drilling known as MDP, wireline, casing and well testing, all you have to do is to press on Download to get any book.

  Basics in Drilling in Oil and Gas Fields
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  Drilling and Completion Note  75 MB
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  Choke Performance
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Wireline Log
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Standard Slickline Tools
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  Well Intervention Pressure Control IWCF   76 MB
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  Drilling Bit – Rotary Drilling Series IADC
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  Managed Pressure Drilling 67 MB
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 what is Managed Pressure Drilling
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  Managed Pressure Drilling – Drill the Un-Drillable
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    Casing Design
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Well Testing Books

Well Testing 82 MB
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Well Testing rar
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Well Testing pdf
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Well Testing and Well Performance 271 MB
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Well Testing – John Lee
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Well Testing Analysis
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Well testing Note
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Well Testing Equipment
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Well Testing Courses  94 MB
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Well Testing zip
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Oil Well Testing – Chaudri    19 MB
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Gas Well Testing – Chaudri   25 MB
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Oil Well Testing Handbook
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   Gas Well Testing

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Introduction to Well Testing
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Well Testing Interpretation Methods
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Introduction to Well testing from Schlumberger
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  Formulas and Calculations for Drilling Production and Workover
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  Completion Hydraulics Handbook from Schlumburger
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    Beam Pumping Operations from SPE
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Under balance Drilling PowerPoint
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    Managing Drilling Operations – Ken Fraser  42 MB
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    Drilling Rig Components Illustrated Glossary
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   Advanced Oil Well Drilling Engineering
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  Pressure Control During Oil Well Drilling
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  Drilling Engineering Workbook
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   Drilling, a source book on oil and gas well drilling from exploration to completion
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  Managing Drilling Operations
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  the Drilling Manual   101 MB
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     Permanent Well Abandonment
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  Well Test Analysis – the Use of Advanced Interpretation Models
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   Introduction to Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Operations
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    Defining Directional Drilling
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Subsurface Safety Equipment from Halliburton
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Surface Safety Valve
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Applied Drilling Calculation
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Rotary Drilling Series   206 MB
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Rotary Drilling Series Questions and Answers
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Books about Fishing 

Fishing Open hole
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 Drilling , Fishing and Completion
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  Fishing & Casing Repair – Jim Short Part.1     Download

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   Oilwell Fishing Operations
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Books about Multilateral Drilling and Horizontal Wells

  Horizontal and Multilateral Well Technology
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   Key Issues in Multilateral Drilling
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  Drilling and Completion of Horizontal Wells   1.5 MB
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Drilling and Completion of Horizontal Wells   7.9 MB
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Single Phase and Multiphase Fluid Flow in Horizontal Wells
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Drilling Rig and Associated Services for Horizontal Wells
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 Pressure Control During Oil Well Drilling
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Exercises in Pressure Control During Drilling
Download


 AC and DC Drives for Oil Drilling
Download Link


  How to Drill a Well

Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  Well Drilling Methods

    Download Link


  subsurface safety valves

      Download Link


   Drilling and Oil Well Servicing

Download


Casing Reference Tables

Download Link 1      Download Link 2


Cementing Books

    Weatherford Cementing Program Handbook
Download


  Horizontal Well Cementing from Schlumberger
Download


    Well Cementing  16 MB
Download


  Oil and Gas Well Cementing 10 MB
Download


  Cement and Cementing
Download


  Cement Chemistry and Additives
Download


  Cementing Handbook – George Suman
Download


     Cementing Overview
Download


  Special  Cementing Technology
Download


  Oil Well Cementing Design
Download


  Deepwater Cementing
Download


  Casing and Cementing
Download


  Cementing Engineering Manual from Schlumberger
Download


  Weatherford Cementing Technology
Download


 Well Productivity Awareness School Manual
Download


  Single Phase and Multiphase Fluid Flow in Horizontal Wells
Download


  Coiled Tubing Books

  Coiled Tubing Handbook
Download


Coiled Tubing the Future of Underbalanced Drilling
Download


    Introduction to Coiled Tubing
Download


  Coiled Tubing eBook
Download



  Drilling Operations Manual
Download


 Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing
Download


  Working Guide to Drilling Equipment and Operations
Download


   LWD Basics
Download


 Well Completion Books

Drilling and Completion of Horizontal Wells Completion
Download


Advanced Well Completion Engineering

Download


  Well Completion and Servicing
Download


  Well Completion Design
Download


  IADC  Drilling and Completion Manual
Download


   Completion Methods
Download


  Drilling Well Completion Carl Gatlin
Download


    Basic Well Completion Concepts
Download


  Completion techniques
Download


  Standards for Well Supervision for Drilling and Completion
Download


     Production optimization of Well Completion & Perforation
Download


  Well Completion & Surface Facilities 

Download


  Completion Hydraulics Handbook from Schlumburger
Download


   Well Completions, Maintenance and Abandonment
Download


  Modern Sandface Completion Handbook
Download Link


  Working Guide to Drilling Equipment & Operations
Download


Well Control Manual Part.1   66 MB 
      Download

Well Control Manual Part.2   77 MB

Download


go to Drilling Books page 4

OilWell Drilling Books page.2

Blow Out Preventers “BOP” Books

Blowout and Well Control Handbook
Download


Advanced Blowout and Well Control
Download


Blowout Prevention
Download 


BOP Basic Safety Functions
Download


  BOP Control Unit
Download


    BOPs   Download



Petroleum Well Construction
Download


 Drilling Engineering Laboratory Manual
Download


 Drilling, Fishing & Completion
Download


 Drilling Assembly Handbook
Download


  Choosing Perforation Strategy
Download


  Horizontal Well Technology
Download


  Deviated Drilling
Download


   Drilling Source Book
Download


  Extended Reach Drilling Guidelines
Download


Prevention, Fishing and Casing Repair – Jim Short – Part 1    55 MB
Download

Prevention, Fishing and Casing Repair – Jim Short – Part 2   42 MB
Download


  Introduction to Workover Operation
Download


 Casing Design _University of Petroleum/China
Download


   Well Stimulation
Download


 Drilling Sequences
Download


  Introduction to Well Integrity
Download


   Brief Introduction to Wireline
Download


    Drilling Problems
Download


  Oil Well Drilling Machines
Download


  Formulas & Calculations for Drilling, Production & WO
Download


  Open Hole Log Analysis and Formation Evaluation
Download


  Introduction to Well testing from Schlumberger
Download


  Well Test Design and Analysis    27 MB
Download


  Introduction to Mud Logging
Download


  Underbalanced Drilling
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Wellhead Christmas Tree
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Drilling Rig Components Hayder Lazim English+Arabic
  Download Link


  Wellhead Basics
Download Link 2


  Drilling Tools
Download Link


  IWCF 34 MB
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Well Engineering and Construction – Hussain Rabie
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  IADC 139 MB
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Oil Well Drilling Machines
Download 


  Advanced Drilling Systems
Download 


  Introduction to Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Well Operations
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Casing and liners for drilling and completion design and application
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Introduction to Drilling
Download Link


  Subsurface Safety Valve Basics
Download Link


  the brief in Oil Well Drilling
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Well Heads, Chokes and SSSV
Download Link 


Casing Reference Tables
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


Simulating Underbalanced Drilling
Download Link


Managing Drilling Operations

Download


 

 

 

Oilwell Drilling Books Page.1

DrillingPage 1

  Sand Control Overview
Download


 Perforating Solutions from Halliburton

Download


 Drilling Technology

Download


Well Control Books

  Well Control B1  259 MB

Download


Well Control 146 MB
Download


 Blowout & Well Control Handbook

Download


  Well Control & IWCF  RAR

Download


  Drilling Practices Manual – Moore

Download


 Drilling Assembly Handbook

Download


 Well Control Manual part.1 from Well Control School      Download

 Well Control Manual part.2 from Well Control School      Download


  Well Control Equipment  ZIP   21 MB

Download


Well Control Equipment RAR 1.8 MB
Download


 Kicks & Well Control

Download


 Wild Well Control

Download


 Well Control – ABERDEEN Drilling School

Download


  Well Control Course
Download


Well Intervention Presssure Control (IWCF)  76 MB
Download


Well Control for the Drilling Team
Download


Pressure Control During Oil well Drilling

Download


Directional Drilling Books

 Directional Drilling  PowerPoint

Download


  Directional Drilling Technology  PowerPoint

Download


  Directional Drilling from Schlumberger    68 MB

Download


  Drilling and Completion of Horizontal Drilling

Download


 Introduction to Directional Drilling

Download


 Controlled Directional Drilling

Download


  Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling

Download


  Directional Drilling from Baker Hughes

Download


   Horizontal Drilling

Download


  a Review of Horizontal Well Drilling

Download Link 1     Download Link 2


Drilling Rig Books

  Drilling Rig RAR
Download


  Drilling Rig Components

Download


 Types of Drilling Rigs

Download


   Drilling Rig Inspection Checklist

Download


  Rig Components & Personnel

Download


  Drilling Rig Operations A to Z

Download


  Drilling Rig Illustrated Glossary

Download


  drilling Rigs and Practices from ENI

Download


Drilling Engineering

Drilling Engineering 350 MB

Download


  Applied Drilling Engineering   61 MB

Download


Advanced Oil Well Drilling Engineering
Download


Drilling Engineering, Dipl & Prassl

Download


  Applied Drilling Engineering ,  Part.1     Download

  Applied Drilling Engineering ,  Part.2     Download

 Applied Drilling Engineering , Part.3     Download

Applied Drilling Engineering , Part.4     Download

Applied Drilling Engineering , Part.5     Download


 Applied Drilling Engineering

Download


  Drilling Data Handbook

Download


  Drilling Engineering    14 MB

Download


   Applied Drilling Engineering    60 MB

Download


  Basic Drilling Engineering  PowerPoint

Download


   Drilling Engineering Workbook Neal Adams

Download


Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering
Download


Drilling Engineering Handbook from Baker Hughes
Download


Drilling Engineering 95 MB
Download


  Drilling Engineering    2.5 MB

Download


Applied Drilling Engineering from SPE
Download



Oilwell Drilling Course2

Drillingthe biggest collection of FREE movies about Oil Well Drilling , it contains movies about:
well casing – cementing & cement additives – Drilling mud systems & additives – Blow Out Preventers BOP – Drilling bits – well logging – directional drilling – drilling rig – Permeability  & Porosity.

Permeability
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


Trapping Mechanism
Download Link 1       Download Link 2


Porosity
Download Link 1        Download Link 2


 Water Flooding
Download Link 1         Download Link 2


 Water Flooding
Download Link 1         Download Link 2


 Enhanced Oil Recovery with Permanent CO2 Storage
Download Link 1         


 UnderGround Injection Wells
Download Link 1         Download Link 2


 Well Cementing
Download Link 1          Download Link 2


 Oil Drilling Machine
Download Link 1        Download Link 2


  Petroleum Engineers
Download Link 1         Download Link 2


 Oil Rig Coiled Tubing Animation
Download Link 1        Download Link 2


Cementing
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Drilling Bits
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Fishing Operations
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Typical Downhole Drilling
Download Link 1        Download Link 2


  3D Oil Drilling
Download


  Directional Drilling Rig
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  Basics of Well Completion
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


   Oil & Gas Wells from Start to End
Download Link 1        Download Link 2


  BOPs in Subsea platforms
Download


  Directional Drilling Rig
Download


  Jackup Drilling Rig – How Does it Work?
Download


  Connection on a Drilling Rig
Download


  Drilling Fluids Monitoring – Well Control Events
Download


  Drilling Techniques
Download


  Drilling Fluids Monitoring – Operational Efficiency
Download


  Drilling Fluid Overview elementary
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  Introduction to Drilling Fluids Monitoring
Download


   Casing
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Rig Types and Basic Drill String Components
Download


  What are Drill Bits?
Download


  Well Logging in Offshore Drilling
Download


  How Drilling Mud Works in Offshore Rig?
Download


  Well Completion – Cased and Perforated
Download


  Well Completion – Perforation
Download


 Well Logging – SP and GR Logs
Download


 Well Test – DST Direct Information
Download


 Well Test – DST Operation P vs T
Download


 Well test – Qualitative DST Chart-1
Download


 How to care & maintain of Mud Pump
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 How does water base mud works in Offshore Rig
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 CCS (Continuous Circulation Drilling System)
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 How does Mud Engineer work on Offshore Rig
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Drilling Fluid Circulation System ( Mud )
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Introduction to UnderBalanced and OverBalanced Drilling
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Managed Pressure Drilling MPD
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Drilling Fluids Overview
Download


  Openhole Fishing
Download Link 1        Download Link 2


Openhole Fracture Completion System

Download Link 


Gas Well Blowout
Download Link 1        Download Link 2


3D Animation of Drilling Rig
Download Link 1               Download Link 2 

Oilwell Drilling course

Drilling

Oil Drilling Videos: the biggest collection of FREE movies about Oil Well Drilling , it contains movies about:

well casing – cementing & cement additives – Drilling mud systems & additives – Blow Out Preventers BOP – Drilling bits – well logging – directional drilling – drilling rig – Permeability  & Porosity.


  AC to DC Power Systems in Oil & Gas Rig
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Overview of Oil & Gas Rig Power Systems
Download 


  Drill Stem Testing
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 WireLine
Download 


  Mud Logging / Testing
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Well Casing
Download 


  Well Cementing
Download 


  Well Casing & Cementing
Download


 Spinning & Torquing Devices
Download


  Pipe Transfer
Download 


  Control for Equipment in Oil & Gas Wells
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Drilling Slips
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Drilling Elevator
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Tripping with a Top Drive in Oil & Gas Drilling.
Download 


   Hoisting Equipment in Oil & Gas wells drilling
Download 


  Tripping In & Out with Kelly in Oil & Gas Drilling.
Download 


  Overview of Pipe Handling.
Download


  Oil & Gas Well Casing Accessories
Download 


  Well Masts & Derricks
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Well Evaluation
Download 


  Kelly & Rotary Table
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Mud System Overview
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Mud Storage tanks, Reserve Pit
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Mud Pump Components
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Drilling Mud Conditioning
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Mud Tests
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Mud Properties & Additives
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Drilling Mud Function

Download Link 1     Download Link 2


   Land Rigs
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Platform Rig
Download


  Top Drive System
Download 


  Submersible Rig
Download 


  Rig Type
Download 


  Mud Gas Separator
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Drill Ship
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Drill Pipe
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Well Pressure Control Overview
Download 


  Well Kick
Download 


  Well Blowout
Download 


  Surface BOP Equipment
Download 


  Trip Tank

Download


  Subsea BOP Equipment
Download 


  Mud Motor
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Drilling Stabilizer
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Drilling Mud
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Drilling Jar
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Drilling Collar
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Drill Bits
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Directional Wells
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Blow Out Preventer BOP Stack
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Measurement While Drilling MWD
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Kelly System in Oil Drilling

Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Instrument of Drilling Rig
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Jackup Rig
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Crossover Subs
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Drill String valves
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Heavy Wall Drill Pipe
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Overview of Rotating Equipment
Download 


 Drilling Line
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Drawworks Traveling Block Hook
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Crown Block
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Introduction to Cementing
Download 


 Mud Cleaning & Settling
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Perforating Gun making
Download 


 Blow Out Preventers BOPs

Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Blow Out Preventers BOPs 

Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Cement Additives Part.1        Download Link 1     Download Link 2

  Cement Additives Part.2        Download Link 1     Download Link 2

  Cement Additives Part.3        Download Link 1     Download Link 2

   Cement Additives Part.4      Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Casing Wellhead Animation
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Drilling Fluids Monitoring
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Drilling Mud Pumps
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Components of Drilling Fluids
Download 


  Cement Thickening Time Test
Download 


 Deep Water BOP
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Well Logging Tools & Techniques   Download 

 Well Logging Part.2    Download 

 Well Logging Part.3     Download 

 Well Logging Part.4    Download 


  Formation Evaluation Using Well Logging Measurement
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Mud Density Correction
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Components of Drilling Fluids
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Underbalanced Drilling
Download 


 Directional Drilling Part.1    Download 

 Directional Drilling Part.2    Download 

 Directional Drilling Part.3    Download 


 Introduction to Well Logging
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Neutron Logs Part.1      Download 

 Neutron Logs Part.2      Download 


 The Dipmeter
Download


 Ground Drilling Animation
Download


 Drilling Fluids Functions
Download


  Schlumberger Shock Vibration in Drilling Environment
Download 


 Water Drive
Download 


 GeoPhysics
Download 


 Hydraulic Fracturing Method
Download


 Fluid Phase Behavior and Classification
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Explaining Fracking with Animation
Download Link 1     Download Link 2



Go to Page 2

Schlumberger Drilling Training Course

Schlumberger

this course consists of 10 CDs, supports 6 languages “English – French – Spanish – Portuguese – Indonesian & Arabic” , it contains all what you need in petroleum well drilling such as:
Drilling Rig – Drilling machines – Drilling Mud – Drilling Fluids – Drilling Mud treatment – Pipe Handling – Rotary Equipment – Casing & Cementing – Well Logging – Mud Logging – BOPs ..etc

all you have to do is to press one of the two links below each CD, and you will be redirected to the download page,

CD-01 An Introduction to Drilling Rigs & Main Components of Drill String.
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-02 BOP Equipment
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-03 Drilling Fluids & Mud Test
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-04 Mud Circulation & Treating Equipment
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-05 Hoisting Equipment
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-06 Rotating Equipment & Mast Substructure.
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


 CD-07 Pipe Handling
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-08 Casing & Cementing
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-09 Well Logging, Mud Logging and Drill Stem Test.
Download Link 1      Download Link 2

  CD-10 Power System and Instruments
Download Link 1      Download Link 2