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Arabic Drilling Videos

فيديوهات حفر الابار النفطية Arabic Drilling Videos

Drillingيقدم لكم موقع النفط والغاز الطبيعي العربي مجموعة كبيرة من الأفلام التعليمية الخاصة بحفر الآبار النفطية باللغة العربية تم تحميلها وتجميعها من مواقع مختلفة ورفعها الى السيرفرات الخاصة بموقعنا لكي يتسنى لكم تحميلها بشكل مباشر ، كل ما عليك فعله هو النفر على كلمة Download أو Download Link الموجودة أسفل الفيديو المطلوب وسيتم تعزيز مكتبة افلام الحفر هذه بكل ما يتوفر من الأفلام الجديدة إن شاء الله. نتمنى لكم المنفعة والفائدة مع هذه السلسلة:

 

 

مضخات طين الحفر
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عمل أدوات الحفر في برج الحفر
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تنظيف سائل الحفر
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حفر آبار النفط
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ما هي رفسة البئر Oil Well Kick
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حفر آبار النفط – الحفر المائل Directional Drilling
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سمنتة الآبار النفطية Oil Well Cementing
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تغليف البئر أثناء الحفر Oil Well Casing
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يمكنكم زيارة قسم أفلام حفر الآبار النفطية – أكثر من 140 فلم تعليمي عن حفر الآبار النفطية


مجموعة أفلام شركة شلمبرجير :

الجزء الأول – الحلقة الأولى:
أبراج الحفر Drilling Rigs
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الجزء الأول – الحلقة الثانية  
Kelly and Top Drive
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الجزء الأول – الحلقة الثالثة
Drill string Components – part.1
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الجزء الأول – الحلقة الرابعة
Drill string Components – part.2
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الجزء الأول – الحلقة الخامسة
مثقاب الحفر Drilling Bits
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الجزء الأول – الحلقة السادسة 
Special drill String Equipment
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الجزء الثاني – الحلقة الأولى
السيطرة على ضغط البئر Pressure Control
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الجزء الثاني – الحلقة الثانية
مانعات الأنفجار Blow Out Preventers BOPS

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الجزء الثاني – الحلقة الثالث
معدات مانع الانفجار Basic “Blow Out Preventers” BOP Equipment
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الجزء الثاني – الحلقة الرابعة
مانعات الأنفجار في المنصات البحرية Subsea BOP Equipment
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الجزء الثاني – الحلقة الخامسة
Drill String Valves and IBOPs
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سلسلة شلومبرجر لحفر الآبار النفطية – 10 أقراص CD – تحميل مجاني


كورس Well Control باللغة العربية للمهندس عبدالله محمود :
(1) – Well Control Key Definitions Download


(2) – رفسة البئر Well Kick- الجزء الأول
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(3) – رفسة البئر Well Kick- الجزء الثاني
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(4) – رفسة البئر Well Kick- الجزء الثالث
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(5) – رفسة البئر Well Kick- الجزء الرابع
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(6) – رفسة البئر Well Kick- الجزء الخامس
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(7) – رفسة البئر Well Kick- الجزء السادس
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(8) Pump Pressure and APL
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(9)  Kick Warning Signs – part.1
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(10) Kick Warning Signs – part.2
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(11) Top Hole Drilling – Part.1
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(12) Top Hole Drilling – Part.2
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يرجى تبليغنا عن أي رابط لا يعمل من خلال وضع تعليق أو من خلال الأتصال بفريق عمل الموقع على البريد الألكتروني التالي:
files(at)arab-oil-naturalgas.com

Wells – Chemicals

Chemicals Used in Fracturing

The identities of chemicals incorporated in fracturing fluids were probably the first thing sensationalized about fracturing. The movie “Gasland” created quite a stir with the statement that a “cocktail” of several hundred toxic chemicals were “potentially” used in fracturing. The grain of truth was that there are many chemicals in additives sold for incorporation in fracturing; however; the fact is that most fracs use only a dozen or so major chemicals, some of which are food-grade additives and many are in parts per million concentration. About half of fracturing jobs are “slick water” fracturing fluid that often use low concentrations of two to five chemicals. Many claims of chemical usage also include trace amounts of chemicals at the edge of detection and most well below the EPA’s strictest limits. Analysis of drinking water, for comparison, has shown arsenic, lead, chromium, solvents, gasoline, pesticides, prescription drugs, and a myriad of household products as the most common contaminants – none from fracturing. The upside to this commentary is that public concerns have moved chemical manufacturers to make and operators to use safer chemicals and less overall chemicals. Many companies have moved toward biocides with less residual activity, mechanical biocides such as ultraviolet light and the use of chemicals on the US EPA’s Safer Choice chemicals (formerly Designed For Environment or DfE) or UK North Sea’s OCNS Hazard rating of Gold Band (lowest possible hazard quotient). These listed materials meet requirements of rapid biodegradation and minimum harm to environments.

see our Drilling Video Course

Friction reducer, the largest volume chemical in slick water fracs, is polyacrylate, a polymer whose main use is in baby diaper absorbent and as a drinking water purifier that adsorbs heavy metals. A cross section of chemicals used in fracturing, the volumes used and some alternate uses helps explain oil field fracturing chemical usage. Chemicals such as diesel, benzene and proven carcinogens, mutagens and endocrine disruptors are not used in modern safe fracturing fluids. The CAS number identifies exact identity (no “trade secret” identities).

drilling chemicals

One of the most impactful problems from fracturing in Pennsylvania was the use of local water treating plants to treat water produced from oil and gas wells before disposal into Pennsylvania rivers. The practice was evidently instituted in Pennsylvania decades prior to the shale drilling boom in the Marcellus when volumes of water flowed from conventional wells was very small and natural salt contents were low. Dilution of locally severe acid mine drainage in some creeks by the produced water was expected to be beneficial; however; large volumes of produced water from fracturing in the shales with high salinity and ions such as bromine and barium proved too problematic for such a disposal method. This practice, although allowed by law in Pennsylvania until about 2010, has been forbidden by law in nearly all western states since the 1950’s.

read also Drilling Rotating Equipment

Chemicals Used in Production Operations

Producing oil and gas with the associated salt water from hydrocarbon bearing formations creates corrosion potential, flow restriction deposits such as mineral scales of calcium or barium and challenges in separating oil from water. Corrosion remains one of the biggest deterioration problems in the oil industry (a large problem in other industries as well). Scales may precipitate in tubulars until they restrict flow. Paraffins (wax) are longer carbon chain components of oil and can deposit anywhere in the well as temperatures cool and pressure declines. Mixing of salt water, oil, gas and a small amount of solids such as sand, rust or even ice can produce emulsions, froths and foams that must be separated before the oil and gas can be sold and the salt water can be recycled or properly re-injected into the hydrocarbon producing formation. A wide variety of specialty chemicals, often at part per million (ppm) concentration, can be used, but only a handful of products are typically selected after laboratory testing. Using minimum amounts of the best additives reduces cost and risk in transport or storage.

drilling chemicals

Any chemical usage may be frightening to some people and there are definitely chemicals that should not be used, particularly where contamination or airborne emissions are possible. By using chemicals proven safe for specific uses, all elements of potential pollution are reduced. Even when the chemicals will never be disposed of in the environment outside of oilfield containment, the safe chemical route minimizes impact in the event of a spill or leak.
Note: BTX (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene) content in many additives is steadily declining but some operators have not phased the products out completely. Many companies are reviewing product offerings for the BTX or other troublesome materials and choosing alternatives. Although BTX is often reported in wells as if they were part of a chemical additive, the most likely source is in the produced oil. BTX and diesel range oil components are a natural part of many produced oils.

Drilling Rotating Equipment

Drilling Rotating EquipmentRotating system:
the figure indicate the comparative sizes of the drill pipe and drill collar.

Swivel

♦ The swivel hangs from the drilling hook by means of large bail, or handle. The swivel is not rotate, but allow everything below it to rotate.

♦ Drilling fluid is introduced into the drillstem through a gooseneck connection on the swivel, which is connected to the rotary hose.

Power Swivel

♦ When a ‘top-drive’ system is used, the swivel is replace by power swivel.

♦ The power swivel performs the same functions as the ‘normal swivel’, but it is also associated with a transmission system used to rotate the drill string, instead of the rotary table transmitting this motion.

Read also Testing of Drilling Systems

Kelly

♦ The kelly is approximatel 40 feet long, square or hexagonal on the outside and hollow throughout to provide a passage way for the drilling fluid.

♦ Its outer surfaces engages corresponding square or hexagonal surfaces in the kelly bushing.

♦ The kelly bushing fits into a part of rotary table called master bushing. Powered gears in the rotary table rotate the master bushing, and thus the kelly bushing.

♦ The kelly bushing will rotate the kelly and everything below it to rotate.

Drill String

♦ The drillstring is made up of the drillpipe, drill collars, and specialized subs through which the drilling fluid and rotational power are transmitted from the surface to the bit.

♦ Drill pipe and drill collar come in sections, or joints, about 30 feet long.

♦ The most commonly used diameters of drill pipe are 4, 4½, and 5 inches OD.

♦ The purpose of drill collars is to put extra weight on he bit, so they are usually larger in diameter than drill pipe and have thicker walls.

Rotating Equipment: Drill String

♦ Drill pipe and drill collars have threaded connection on each end.

♦ On drill pipe the threaded connection are called tool joints. Tool joints are steel rings that are welded to each end of a joint of drill pipe. One tool joints is a pin (male) connection, and the other is a box (female) connection.

♦ Specialized Subs: The word “sub” refers to any short length of pipe, collar, casing, etc., with a definite function.

Drill Bit

Read a full article about Drilling Bits

♦ At the bottom of drillstring is a the bit, which drills the formation rock.

♦ Most common types are roller cone bits and diamond bits.

♦ The bit size: range from 3¾ inches (9.5 cm) to 26 inches (66 cm) in diameters. The most commonly used sizes are 17½, 12¼, 77/8, and 6 ¼ inches (44, 31, 20, and 16 cm).

♦ Roller cone bits usually have three cone-shaped steel devices that are free to turn as the bit rotates.

♦ Several rows of teeth, or cutters, on each cone scrape, gouge, or crush the formation as the teeth roll over it.

♦ Two types: milled teeth and tungsten carbide inserts.

♦ Most roller cone bits are jet bits: drilling fluid exits from the bit through nozzles between the cone, thus create high velocity jets of mud. This will help lift cuttings away from the bit.

Circulating System
There are a number of main objectives of this system:

♦ Cooling and lubricating the drill bit.

♦ Controlling well pressure.

♦ Removing debris and cuttings.

♦ Coating the walls of the well with a mud cake.

– The circulating system consists of drilling fluid, which is circulated down through the well hole.

– The most common liquid drilling fluid, known as ‘mud’, may contain clay, chemicals, weighting materials, water
and oil.

– The circulating system consists of a starting point, the mud pit, where the drilling fluid ingredients are stored.

 – Mixing takes place at the mud mixing hopper, from which the fluid is forced through pumps up to the swivel and down all the way through the drill pipe, emerging through the drill bit itself.

– From there, the drilling fluid circulates through the bit, picking up debris and drill cuttings, to be circulated back up the well, traveling between the drill string and the walls of the well (also called the ‘annular space’).

– Once reaching the surface, the drilling fluid is filtered to recover the reusable fluid.

Drilling Circulating System

Oil-Base and Synthetic-Base Muds

Drilling Mud Tests

The field tests for rheology, mud density, and gel strength are accomplished in the same manner as outlined for water-based drilling mud. The main difference is that rheology is tested at a specific temperature, usually 120◦F or
150◦F. Because oils tend to thin with temperature, heating fluid is required and should be reported on the API Mud Report.
see our Drilling Fluids Books section

Sand Content
Sand content measurement is the same as for water-base drilling mud except that the mud’s base oil instead of water should be used for dilution. The sand content of oil-base mud is not generally tested.
HPHT Filtration The API filtration test result for oil-base drilling mud is usually zero. In relaxed filtrate oil-based muds, the API filtrate should be all oil. The API test does not indicate downhole filtration rates. The alternative high-temperature–high pressure (HTHP) filtration test will generally give a better indication of the fluid loss characteristics of a fluid under downhole temperatures The instruments for the HTHP filtration test consists essentially of a controlled pressure source, a cell designed towithstand a working pressure of at least 1,000 psi, a system for heating the cell, and a suitable frame to hold the cell and the heating system. For filtration tests at temperatures above 200◦F, a pressurized collection cell is attached to the delivery tube.
The filter cell is equipped with a thermometer well, oil-resistant gaskets, and a support for the filter paper (Whatman no. 50 or the equivalent). A valve on the filtrate delivery tube controls flow from the cell. A nonhazardous
gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide should be used as the pressure source. The test is usually performed at a temperature of 220 – 350◦F and a pressure of 500 psi (differential) over a 30-minute period. When other temperatures, pressures, or times are used, their values should be reported together with test results. If the cake compressibility is desired, the test should be repeated with pressures of 200 psi on the filter cell and
100 psi back pressure on the collection cell. The volume of oil collected at the end of the test should be doubled to correct to a surface area of 7.1 inches.

read also Testing of Drilling Systems

Electrical Stability
The electrical stability test indicates the stability of emulsions of water inoilmixtures. The emulsion tester consists of a reliable circuit using a source of variable AC current (or DC current in portable units) connected to strip electrodes . The voltage imposed across the electrodes can be increased until a predetermined amount of current flows through the drilling mud emulsion-breakdown point. Relative stability is indicated as the voltage at the breakdown point and is reported as the electric stability of the fluid on the daily API test report.

Liquids and Solids Content
Oil, water, and solids volume percent is determined by retort analysis as in a water-base drilling mud. More time is required to get a complete distillation of an oil mud than for a water mud. The corrected water phase volume, the volume percent of low-gravity solids, and the oil-to-water ratio can then be calculated.

The volume oil-to-water ratio can be found from the procedure below:

Oil fraction 100 × % by volume oil or synthetic oil / (% by volume oil or synthetic oil−% by volume water)

Chemical analysis procedures for nonaqueous fluids can be found in the API 13B bulletin available from the American Petroleum Institute.

Alkalinity and Lime Content (NAF)
The whole mud alkalinity test procedure is a titration method that measures the volume of standard acid required to react with the alkaline (basic) materials in an oil mud sample.
The alkalinity value is used to calculate the pounds per barrel of unreacted, “excess” lime in an oil mud. Excess alkaline materials, such as lime, help to stabilize the emulsion and neutralize carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide
acidic gases.

Total Salinity (Water-Phase Salinity [WAF] for NAF)
The salinity control ofNAFfluids is very important for stabilizing water-sensitive shales and clays. Depending on the ionic concentration of the shale waters and of the drilling mud water phase, an osmotic flow of pure water from the weaker
salt concentration (in shale) to the stronger salt concentration (in mud) will occur. This may cause dehydration of the shale and, consequently, affect its stabilization

Specialized Tests
Other, more advanced laboratory-based testing is commonly carried out on drilling fluids to determine treatments or to define contaminants. Some of the more advanced analytical tests routinely conducted on drilling fluids include:

Advanced Rheology and Suspension Analysis
FANN 50 — A laboratory test for rheology under temperature and moderate pressure (up to 1,000 psi and 500◦F).
FANN 70 — Laboratory test for rheology under high temperature and high pressure (up to 20,000 psi and 500◦F).
FANN 75 — Amore advanced computer-controlled version of the FANN 70 (up to 20,000 psi and 500◦F).

High-Angle Sag Test (HAST)
A laboratory test device to determine the suspension properties of a fluid in high-angle wellbores. This test is designed to evaluate particle setting characteristics of a fluid in deviated wells.

Drilling Mud
Salt Saturation Curves

Dynamic HAST
Laboratory test device to determine the suspension properties of a drilling fluid under high angle and dynamic conditions.

Specialized Filtration Testing
FANN 90 Dynamic filtration testing of a drilling fluid under pressure and temperature. This test determines if the fluid is properly conditioned to drill through highly permeable formations. The test results include two numbers: the dynamic filtration rate and the cake deposition index (CDI).
The dynamic filtration rate is calculated from the slope of the curve of volume versus time. The CDI, which reflects the erodability of the wall cake, is calculated from the slope of the curve of volume/time versus time. CDI and dynamic filtration rates are calculated using data collected after twenty minutes. The filtration media for the FAN 90 is a synthetic core. The core size can be sized for each application to optimize the filtration rate.

Particle-PluggingTest (PPT)
The PPT test is accomplishedwith a modified HPHT cell to examine sealing characteristics of a drilling fluid. The
PPT, sometimes known as the PPA (particle-plugging apparatus), is key when drilling in high-differential-pressure environments.

Aniline Point Test
Determine the aniline point of an oil-based fluid base oil. This test is critical to ensure elastomer compatibility when using nonaqueous fluids.

Particle-Size Distribution (PSD) Test
The PSD examines the volume and particle sizedistribution of solidsinafluid.This test is valuable indetermining
the type and size of solids control equipment that will be needed to properly clean a fluid of undesirable solids.

Luminescence Fingerprinting
This test is used to determine if contamination of a synthetic-based mud has occurredwith crude oil during drilling
operations.

Lubricity Testing
Various lubricity meters and devices are available to the industry to determine how lubricous a fluid is when exposed to steel or shale. In high-angle drilling applications, a highly lubricious fluid is desirable to allow proper transmission of weight to the bit and reduce side wall sticking tendencies.

Testing of Drilling Systems

drill mudTo properly control the hole cleaning, suspension, and filtration properties of a drilling fluid, testing of the fluid properties is done on a daily basis. Most tests are conducted at the rig site, and procedures are set forth in the API RPB13B. Testing of water-based fluids and nonaqueous fluids can be similar, but variations of procedures occur due to the nature of the fluid being tested.

Water-Base Muds Testing
To accurately determine the physical properties of water-based drilling fluids, examination of the fluid is required in a field laboratory setting. In many cases, this consists of a few simple tests conducted by the derrickman or mud Engineer at the rigsite. The procedures for conducting all routine drilling fluid testing can be found in the American Petroleum Institute’s API RPB13B.

Density Often referred to as themudweight, densitymaybe expressed as pounds per gallon (lb/gal), pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3), specific gravity (SG) or pressure gradient (psi/ft). Any instrument of sufficient accuracy within ±0.1 lb/gal or ±0.5 lb/ft3 may be used. The mud balance is the instrument most commonly used. The weight of a mud cup attached to one end of the beam is balanced on the other end by a fixed counterweight and a rider free to move along a graduated scale. The density of the fluid is a direct reading from the scales located on both sides of the mud balance .
Marsh Funnel Viscosity
Drilling Mud testMud viscosity is a measure of the mud’s resistance to flow. The primary function of drilling fluid viscosity is a to transport cuttings to the surface and suspend weighing materials. Viscosity must be high enough that the weighting material will remain suspended but low enough to permit sand and cuttings to settle out and entrained gas to escape at the surface. Excessive viscosity can create high pump pressure, which magnifies the swab or surge effect during tripping operations. The control of equivalent circulating density (ECD) is always a prime concern when managing the viscosity of a drilling fluid. The Marsh funnel is a rig site instrument used to measure funnel viscosity. The funnel is dimensioned so that by following standard procedures, the outflow time of 1 qt (946 ml) of freshwater at a temperature of 70±5◦F is 26±0.5 seconds. A graduated cup is used as a receiver.

Direct Indicating Viscometer
This is a rotational type instrument powered by an electric motor or by a hand crank . Mud is contained in the annular space between two cylinders. The outer cylinder or rotor sleeve is driven at a constant rotational velocity; its rotation in the mud produces a torque on the inner cylinder or bob. A torsion spring restrains the movement of the bob. A dial attached to the bob indicates its displacement on a direct reading scale. Instrument constraints have been adjusted so that plastic viscosity, apparent viscosity, and yield point are obtained by using readings from rotor sleeve speeds of 300 and 600 rpm.
Plastic viscosity (PV) in centipoise is equal to the 600 rpm dial reading minus the 300 rpm dial reading. Yield point (YP), in pounds per 100 ft2, is equal to the 300-rpm dial reading minus the plastic viscosity. Apparent viscosity in centipoise is equal to the 600-rpm reading, divided by two.

Gel Strength
Gel strength is a measure of the inter-particle forces and indicates the gelling thatwill occur when circulation is stopped. This property prevents the cuttings from setting in the hole. High pump pressure is generally required to “break” circulation in a high-gel mud. Gel strength is measured in units of lbf/100 ft2. This reading is obtained by noting the maximum dial deflection when the rotational viscometer is turned at a low rotor speed (3 rpm) after the mud has remained static for some period of time (10 seconds, 10 minutes, or 30 minutes). If the mud is allowed
to remain static in the viscometer for a period of 10 seconds, the maximum dial deflection obtained when the viscometer is turned on is reported as the initial gel on the API mud report form. If the mud is allowed to remain static for 10 minutes, the maximumdial deflection is reported as the 10-min gel. The same device is used to determine gel strength that is used to determine the plastic viscosity and yield point, the Variable Speed
Rheometer/Viscometer.

API Filtration
A standard API filter press is used to determine the filter cake building characteristics and filtration of a drilling fluid
The API filter press consists of a cylindrical mud chamber made of materials resistant to strongly alkaline solutions. A filter paper is placed on the bottom of the chamber just above a suitable support. The total filtration area is 7.1
(±0.1) in.2. Below the support is a drain tube for discharging the filtrate into a graduated cylinder. The entire assembly is supported by a stand so 100-psi pressure can be applied to the mud sample in the chamber. At the end of the 30-minute filtration time, the volume of filtrate is reported as API filtration in milliliters. To obtain correlative results, one thickness of the proper 9-cm filter paper—Whatman No. 50, S&S No. 5765, or the equivalent—must be
used. Thickness of the filter cake is measured and reported in 32nd of an inch. The cake is visually examined, and its consistency is reported using such notations as “hard,” “soft,” tough,” ’‘rubbery,” or “firm.”

Sand Content
The sand content in drilling fluids is determined using a 200-mesh sand sieve screen 2 inches in diameter, a funnel to fit the screen, and a glass-sand graduated measuring tube . The measuring tube is marked to indicate the volume of “mud to be added,” water to be added and to directly read the volume of sand on the bottom of the tube.
Sand content of the mud is reported in percent by volume. Also reported is thepoint of sampling (e.g., flowline, shale shaker, suctionpit). Solids other than sand may be retained on the screen (e.g., lost circulation material), and
the presence of such solids should be noted.

Liquids and Solids Content
A mud retort is used to determine the liquids and solids content of a drilling fluid. Mud is placed in a steel container and heated at high temperature until the liquid components have been distilled off and vaporized. The vapors are passed through a condenser and collected in a graduated cylinder. The volume of liquids
(water and oil) is then measured. Solids, both suspended and dissolved, are determined by volume as a difference between the mud in container and the distillate in graduated cylinder. Drilling fluid retorts are generally
designed to distill 10-, 20-, or 50-ml sample volumes.

For freshwater muds, a rough measure of the relative amounts of barite and clay in the solids can be made (Table 1.1). Because both suspended and dissolved solids are retained in the retort for muds containing substantial
quantities of salt, corrections must be made for the salt. Relative amounts of high- and low-gravity solids contained in drilling fluids can be found in Table 1.1.

pH
Two methods for measuring the pH of drilling fluid are commonly used: (1) a modified colorimetric method using pH paper or strips and (2) the electrometric method using a glass electrode . The paper strip test may not be reliable if the salt concentration of the sample is high.
The electrometric method is subject to error in solutions containing high concentrations of sodium ions unless a special glass electrode is used or unless suitable correction factors are applied if an ordinary electrode is used. In addition, a temperature correction is required for the electrometric method of measuring pH.
The paper strips used in the colorimetric method are impregnated with dyes so that the color of the test paper depends on the pH of the medium in which the paper is placed. A standard color chart is supplied for comparison
with the test strip. Test papers are available in a wide range, which permits estimating pH to 0.5 units, and in narrow range papers, with which the pH can be estimated to 0.2 units.
The glass electrode pH meter consists of a glass electrode, an electronic amplifier, and a meter calibrated in pH units. The electrode is composed of (1) the glass electrode, a thin-walled bulb made of special glass within
which is sealed a suitable electrolyte and an electrode, and (2) the reference electrode, which is a saturated calomel cell. Electrical connection with the mud is established through a saturated solution of potassium chloride
contained in a tube surrounding the calomel cell. The electrical potential generated in the glass electrode system by the hydrogen ions in the drilling mud is amplified and operates the calibrated pH meter.

Resistivity
Control of the resistivity of the mud and mud filtrate while drilling may be desirable to permit enhanced evaluation of the formation characteristics from electric logs. The determination of resistivity is essentially the measurement of the resistance to electrical current flow through a known sample configuration. Measured resistance is converted to resistivity by use of a cell constant. The cell constant is fixed by the configuration of the sample in the cell and id determined by calibration with standard solutions of known resistivity. The resistivity is expressed in ohm-meters.

Filtrate Chemical Analysis
Standard chemical analyses have been developed for determining the concentration of various ions present in the mud. Tests for the concentration of chloride, hydroxyl, and calcium ions are required to fill out the API drilling mud report. The tests are based on filtration (i.e., reaction of a known volume of mud filtrate sample with a standard solution of known volume and concentration). The end of chemical reaction is usually indicated by the change of color. The concentration of the ion being tested can be determined from a knowledge of the chemical reaction taking place.

Chloride
The chloride concentration is determined by titration with silver nitrate solution. This causes the chloride to be removed from the solution as AgCl−, a white precipitate. The endpoint of the titration is detected using a potassium chromate indicator. The excess Ag present after all Cl− has been removed fromsolution reactswith the chromate to formAg9CrO4, an orange-red precipitate. Contamination with chlorides generally results from drilling salt or from a saltwater flow. Salt can enter and contaminate themudsystem when salt formations are drilled and when saline formation water enters the wellbore.

Alkalinity and Lime Content
Alkalinity is the ability of a solution or mixture to react with an acid. The phenolphthalein alkalinity refers to the
amount of acid required to reduce the pH of the filtrate to 8.3, the phenolphthalein end point. The phenolphthalein alkalinity of the mud and mud filtrate is called the Pm and Pf , respectively. The Pf test includes the effect of only dissolved bases and salts, whereas the Pm test includes the effect of both dissolved and suspended bases and salts. The m and f indicate if the test was conducted on the whole mud or mud filtrate. The Mf alkalinity refers to the amount of acid required to reduce the pH to 4.3, the methyl orange end point. The methyl orange alkalinity of the mud and mud filtrate is called the Mm and Mf , respectively. The API diagnostic tests include the determination of Pm, Pf , and Mf . All values are reported in cubic centimeters of 0.02N (normality= 0.02) sulfuric acid per cubic centimeter of sample. The lime content of the mud is calculated by subtracting the Pf from the Pm and dividing the result by 4.
The Pf and Mf tests are designed to establish the concentration of hydroxyl, bicarbonate, and carbonate ions in the aqueous phase of the mud. At a pH of 8.3, the conversion of hydroxides to water and carbonates to bicarbonates
is essentially complete. The bicarbonates originally present in solution do not enter the reactions. As the pH is further reduced to 4.3, the acid reacts with the bicarbonate ions to form carbon dioxide and water.
ml N/50H2SO4 to reach pH=8.3
CO 3(-2) +H2SO4→HCO3(-) +HSO4
carbonate+acid→bicarbonate+bisulfate
OH−+H2SO4→HOH+SO4=  hydroxyl+acid→water+sulfate salt
The Pf and Pm test results indicate the reserve alkalinity of the suspended solids. As the [OH−] in solution is reduced, the lime and limestone suspended in the mud will go into solution and tend to stabilize the pH
(Table 1.2). This reserve alkalinity generally is expressed as an excess lime concentration, in lb/bbl of mud. The accurate testing of Pf, Mf , and Pm are needed to determine the quality and quantity of alkaline material present
in the drilling fluid. The chart below shows how to determine the hydroxyl, carbonate, and bicarbonate ion concentrations based on these titrations.

Total Hardness
The total combined concentration of calcium and magnesium in the mud-water phase is defined as total hardness. These contaminants are often present in the water available for use in the drilling fluid makeup. In addition, calcium can enter the mud when anhydrite (CaSO4) or gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2O) formations are drilled. Cement also contains
calcium and can contaminate the mud. The total hardness is determined by titration with a standard (0.02 N) versenate hardness titrating solution (EDTA). The standard versenate solution contains sodium versenate, an
organic compound capable of forming a chelate when combined with Ca2 and Mg2.
The hardness test sometimes is performed on the whole mud as well as the mud filtrate. The mud hardness indicates the amount of calcium suspended in the mud and the amount of calcium in solution. This test usually is made on gypsum-treated muds to indicate the amount of excess CaSO4 present in suspension. To perform the hardness test on mud, a small sample of mud is first diluted to 50 times its original volume with distilled water so that any undissolved calcium or magnesium compounds can go into solution. The mixture then is filtered through hardened filter paper to obtain a clear filtrate. The total hardness of this filtrate then is obtained using the same procedure used for the filtrate from the low-temperature, low-pressure API filter press apparatus.

Methylene Blue Capacity (CEC or MBT)
It is desirable to know the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the drilling fluid. To some extent, this value can be correlated to the bentonite content of the mud. The test is only qualitative because organic material and other clays present in the mud also absorb methylene blue dye. The mud sample is treated with hydrogen peroxide to oxidize most of the organic material. The cation exchange capacity is reported in milliequivalent weights (mEq) of methylene blue dye per 100 ml of mud. The methylene blue solution used for titration is usually 0.01 N, so that the cation exchange capacity is numerically equal to the cubic centimeters of methylene blue solution per cubic centimeter of sample required to reach an end point. If other adsorptive materials are not present in significant quantities, the montmorillonite content of the mud in pounds per barrel is calculated to be five times the cation exchange capacity.
The methylene blue test can also be used to determine cation exchange capacity of clays and shales. In the test, a weighed amount of clay is dispersed into water by a high-speed stirrer ormixer. Titration is carried out as
for drilling muds, except that hydrogen peroxide is not added. The cation exchange capacity of clays is expressed as milliequivalents of methylene blue per 100 g of clay.

Oil Well Planning

Drilling optimization requires detailed engineering in all aspects of well planning, drilling implementation, and post-run evaluation Effective well planning optimizes the boundaries, constraints, learning, nonproductive time, and limits and uses new technologies as well as tried and true methods. Use of decision support packages, which document the reasoning behind the decision-making, is key to shared learning and continuous improvement processes. It is critical to anticipate potential difficulties, to understand their consequences, and to be prepared with
contingency plans. Post-run evaluation is required to capture learning.
Drilling Planning

Many of the processes used are the same as used during the well planning phase, but are conducted using new data from the recent drilling events. Depending on the phase of planning and whether you are the operator
or a service provider, some constraints will be out of your control to alter or influence (e.g., casing point selection, casing sizes, mud weights, mud types, directional plan, drilling approach such as BHA types or new technology
use). There is significant value inbeing able to identify alternate possibilities for improvement over current methods, but well planning must consider future availability of products and services for possible well interventions.
When presented properly to the groups affected by the change, it is possible to learn why it is not feasible or to alter the plan to cause improvement. Engineers must understand and identify the correct applications for technologies to reduce costs and increase effectiveness.Acorrect application understands the tradeoffs of risk versus rewardandcosts versus benefits.

Boundaries Boundaries are related to the “rules of the game” established by the company or companies involved. Boundaries are criteria established by management as “required outcomes or processes” and may relate to
behaviors, costs, time, safety, and production targets.
Constraints Constraints during drilling may be preplanned trip points for logs, cores, casing, and BHA or bit changes. Equipment, information, human resource knowledge, skills and availability, mud changeover, and dropping balls for downhole tools are examples of constraints on the plan and its implementation.
The Learning Curve Optimization’s progress can be tracked using learning curves that chart the performance measures deemed most effective for the situation and then applying this knowledge to subsequent wells.
Learning curves provide a graphic approach to displaying the outcomes. Incremental learning produces an exponential curve slope. Step changes may be caused by radically new approaches or unexpected trouble. With
understanding and planning, the step change will more likely be in a positive direction, imparting huge savings for this and future wells. The curve slope defines the optimization rate. The learning curve can be used to demonstrate the overall big picture or a small component that affects the overall outcome. In either case, the curve measures the rate of change of the parameter you choose, typically the “performance measures” established by you and your team. Each performance measure is typically plotted against time, perhaps the chronological order of wells drilled as shown in figure below:

Cost Estimating Oneof the mostcommonand critical requests of drilling engineers is to provide accurate cost estimates, or authority for expenditures (AFEs). The key is to use a systematic and repeatable approach that takes
into account all aspects of the client’s objectives. These objectives must be clearly defined throughout the organization before beginning the optimization and estimating process. Accurate estimating is essential to maximizing a company’s resources. Overestimating a project’s cost can tie up capital that could be used elsewhere, and underestimating can create budget shortfalls affecting overall economics.
Integrated Software Packages With the complexity of today’s wells, it is advantageous to use integrated software packages to help design all aspects of the well. Examples of these programs include

• Casing design
• Torque and drag
• Directional planning
• Hydraulics
• Cementing
• Well control
Decision Support Packages Decision support packages document the reasoning behind the decisions that are made, allowing other people to understand the basis for the decisions. When future well requirements change, a decision trail is available that easily identifies when new choices may be needed and beneficial.
Performance Measures Common drilling optimization performance measures are cost per foot of hole drilled, cost per foot per casing interval, trouble time, trouble cost, and AFEs versus actual costs.
Systems Approach Drilling requires the use of many separate pieces of equipment, but they must function as one system. The borehole should be included in the system thinking. The benefit is time reduction, safety improvement, and production increases as the result of less nonproductive time and faster drilling. For example, when an expected average rate of penetration (ROP) and a maximum instantaneous ROP have been identified, it is possible to ensure that the tools and borehole will be able to support that as a plan. Bit capabilities must be matched to the rpm, life, and formation. Downhole motors must provide the desired rpm and power at the flow rate being programmed. Pumps must be able to provide the flow rate and pressure as planned.
Nonproductive Time Preventing trouble events is paramount to achieving cost control and is arguably the most important key to drilling a cost-effective, safe well. Troubles are “flat line” time, a terminology emanating from the days versus depth curve when zero depth is being accomplished for a period of days, creating a horizontal line on the graph. Primary problems invariably cause more serious associated problems. For example, surge pressures can cause lost circulation, which is the most common cause of blowouts. Excessive mud weight can cause differential sticking, stuck pipe, loss of hole, and sidetracking. Wellbore instability can cause catastrophic loss of entire hole sections. Key seating and pipe washouts can cause stuck pipe and a fishing job.
When a trouble event leads to a fishing job, “fishing economics” should be performed. This can help eliminate emotional decisions that lead to overspending. Several factors should be taken into account when determining
whether to continue fishing or whether to start in the first place.
The most important of these are replacement or lost-in-hole cost of tools and equipment, historical success rates (if known), and spread rate cost of daily operations. These can be used to determine a risk-weighted value of
fishing versus the option to sidetrack.
Operational inefficiencies are situations for which better planning and implementation could have saved timeandmoney. Sayings such as“makin’ hole” and “turnin’ to the right” are heard regularly in the drilling business.
These phases relate the concept of maximizing progress. Inefficiencies which hinder progress include
• Poor communications
• No contingency plans and “waiting on orders” (WOO)
• Trips
• Tool failure
• Improper WOB and rpm (magnitude and consistency)
• Mud properties that may unnecessarily reduce ROP (spurt loss, water loss and drilled solids)
• Surface pump capacities, pressure and rate (suboptimum liner selection and too small pumps, pipe, drill collars)
• Poor matching of BHA components (hydraulics, life, rpm, and data acquisition rates)
• Survey time
Limits Each well to be drilled must have a plan. The plan is a baseline expectation for performance (e.g., rotating hours, number of trips, tangibles cost). The baseline can be taken from the learning curves of the best experience that characterizes the well to be drilled. The baseline may be a widely varying estimate for an exploration well or a highly refined measure in a developed field. Optimization requires identifying and improving on the limits that play the largest role in reducing progress for the well being planned. Common limits include
1. Hole Size. Hole size in the range of 7 7/8 – 8 1/2 in. is commonly agreed to be the most efficient and cost-effective hole size to drill, considering numerous criteria, including hole cleaning, rock volume drilled, downhole tool life, bit life, cuttings handling, and drill string handling. Actual hole sizes drilled are typically determined by the size of production tubing required, the required number of casing points, contingency strings, and standard casing decision trees. Company standardization programs for casing, tubing, and bits may limit available choices.
2. Bit Life. Measures of bit life vary depending on bit type and application. Roller cones in soft to medium-soft rock often use KREVs (i.e., total revolutions, stated in thousands of revolutions). This measure fails to consider the effect ofWOBon bearing wear, but soft formations typically use medium to high rpm and low WOB; therefore, this measure has become most common. Roller cones in medium to hard rock often use a multiplication of WOB and total revolutions, referred to as the WR or WN number, depending on bit vender. Roller cone bits smaller than 7 7/8 in. suffer significant reduction in bearing life, tooth life, tooth size, and ROP. PDC bits, impregnated bits, natural diamond bits, and TSP bits typically measure in terms if bit hours and KREVs. Life of all bits is severely reduced by vibration. Erosion can wear bit teeth or the bit face that holds the cutters, effectively reducing bit life.
3. Hole Cleaning. Annular velocity (AV) rules of thumb have been used to suggest hole-cleaning capacity, but each of several factors, including mud properties, rock properties, hole angle, and drill string rotation, must be considered. Directional drilling with steerable systems require “sliding” (not rotating) the drill string during the orienting stage; hole cleaning can suffer drastically at hole angles greater than 50. Hole cleaning in large-diameter holes, even if vertical, is difficult merely because of the fast drilling formations and commonly low AV.
4. Rock Properties. It is fundamental to understand formation type, hardness, and characteristics as they relate to drilling and production. From a drilling perspective, breaking down and transporting rock (i.e., hole cleaning) is required. Drilling mechanics must be matched to the rock mechanics. Bit companies can be supplied with electric logs and associated data so that drill bit types and operating parameters can be recommended that will match the rock mechanics. Facilitating maximum production capacity is given a higher priority through the production zones. This means drilling gage holes,minimizing formation damage (e.g., clean mud, less exposure time), and facilitating effective cement jobs.
5. Weight on Bit. WOB must be sufficient to overcome the rock strength, but excessive WOB reduces life through increased bit cutting structure and bearing wear rate (for roller cone bits). WOB can be expressed in terms of weight per inch of bit diameter. The actual range used depends on the “family” of bit selected and, to some extent, the rpm used. Families are defined as natural diamond, PDC, TSP (thermally stable polycrystalline), impregnated, mill tooth, and insert.
6. Revolutions per Minute (rpm). Certain ranges of rpm have proved to be prudent for bits, tools, drill strings, and the borehole. Faster rpm normally increases ROP, but life of the product or downhole assembly may be severely reduced if rpm is arbitrarily increased too high. A too-low rpm can yield slower than effective ROP and may provide insufficient hole cleaning and hole pack off, especially in high-angle wells.
7. Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD). ECDs become critical when drilling in a soft formation environment where the fracture gradient is not much larger than the pore pressure. Controlling ROP, reducing pumping flow rate, drill pipe OD, and connection OD may all be considered or needed to safely drill the interval.
8. Hydraulic System. The rig equipment (e.g., pumps, liners, engines or motors, drill string, BHA) may be a given. In this case, optimizing the drilling plan based on its available capabilities will be required.
However, if you can demonstrate or predict an improved outcome that would justify any incremental costs, then you will have accomplished additional optimization. The pumps cannot provide their rated horsepower
if the engines providing power to the pumps possess inadequate mechanical horsepower. Engines must be down rated for efficiency.
Changing pump liners is a simple cost-effective way to optimize the hydraulic system. Optimization involves several products and services and the personnel representatives.This increases the difficulty to achieve an optimized parameter selection that is best as a system.

New Technologies

Positive step changes reflected in the learning curve are often the result of effective implementation of new technologies:
1. Underbalanced Drilling. UBD is implemented predominantly to maximize the production capacity variable of the well’s optimization by minimizing formation damage during the drilling process. Operationally, the pressure of the borehole fluid column is reduced to less than the pressure in the ZOI. ROP is also substantially increased. Often,
coiled tubing is used to reduce the tripping and connection time and mitigate safety issues of “snubbing” joints of pipe.
2. Surface Stack Blowout Preventer (BOP). The use of a surface stack BOP configurations in floating drilling is performed by suspending the BOP stack above the waterline and using high-pressure risers (typically 13 3/8 in. casing) as a conduit to the sea floor. This method, generally used in benign and moderate environments, has saved considerable time and money in water depths to 6,000 ft.
3. Expandable Drilling Liners. EDLs can be used for several situations. The casing plan may startwith a smaller diameter than usual, while finishing in the production zone as a large, or larger, final casing diameter. Future advances may allow setting numerous casing strings in succession, all of the exact same internal diameter. The potential as a step change technology for optimizing drilling costs and mitigating risks is phenomenal.
4. Rig Instrumentation. The efficient and effective application of weight to the bit and the control of downhole vibration play a key role in drilling efficiency. Excessive WOB applied can cause axial vibration, causing destructive torsional vibrations. Casing handling systems and top drives are effective tools.
5. Real-Time Drilling Parameter Optimization. Downhole and surface vibration detection equipment allows for immediatemitigation. Knowing actual downhole WOB can provide the necessary information to perform improved drill-off tests .
6. Bit Selection Processes. Most bit venders are able to use the electric log data (Sonic,GammaRay, Resistivity as aminimum)and associated offset information to improve the selection of bit cutting structures. Formation
type, hardness, and characteristics are evaluated and matched to the application needs as an optimization process.

Drilling Fluids

drilling mudTheory and Applications of Drilling Fluid Hydraulics
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Drilling Fluids Manual
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Drilling Fluids Technology
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Drilling Fluids
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Drilling Fluids Technology Performance & Environmental Considerations
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  Drilling Fluids & Health Risk Management
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Development of Water-Based Drilling Fluids customized for Shale Reservoirs
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  offshore Discharge of Drilling Fluids & Cuttings
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Drilling Fluid manual
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Water – Based Drilling Fluids
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Analysis of Drilling Fluid Rheology and Tool Joint
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Exercises within Drilling Fluid Engineering
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Experimental Study of Rheological Properties of Model Drilling Fluids
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Future Challenges of Drilling Fluids and Their Rheological Measurements
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Oils based drilling fluids with tailor-made Rheological properties
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The Effect of Drilling Fluid Rheological Properties on Hole Cleaning
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Drilling Fluids Technology Performance & Environmental Consideration
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Drilling Fluid Composition & Use within Offshore Drilling Industry
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Shale Shakers Drilling Fluid System
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Drilling Fluids Engineering Manual
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Optimizing Drilling Fluids in Horizontal Wells
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Drilling Fluids & Health Risk Management
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Future Challenges of Drilling Fluids and Their Rheological Measurements
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Fundamentals of Drilling Fluids
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Drilling Fluids Processing
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Drilling Fluids Engineering
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Flexible Drilling Fluid Formulation and Application
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Drilling Fluids
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Drilling Fluids Processing Handbook
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Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids
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Drilling Fluids
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Drilling Fluids Circulation System
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Drilling Fluids for Horizontal Wells
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Exercises in Drilling Fluid Engineering
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Preparation of Drilling Fluids
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Particle Size Analysis for Drilling Fluids  
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Drilling Muds

Drilling Mud Training  Power Point
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  Mud Engineering
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  Mud Types, Mud Data & Hydraulics     Power Point
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  Mud Engineering Handbook
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  Advanced Mud Logger Manual
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  Basic Mud Logging
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  Basic Mud Logging Sensors
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  Mud Logging Pre-Training Guide
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   Mud Engineering
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  Effects of Water-based Drilling Muds & Cuttings
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  Oil-Based Drilling Mud
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   Effect of Variable Rheological Properties of Drilling Muds and Cements on the Temperature
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  Rheology of Drilling Mud
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  Rheology of Drilling Mud
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    Mud Check Training School
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  Drilling Mud, Monitoring and Managing
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  Use of drilling muds (shale shaker and mud pit areas)
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  Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry
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   Basic Mud Logging
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  Mud Facts and Tests
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  Basic Mud Logging Guide
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   Basic Mud Logging Manual
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    Mud Logging Definitions
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    Mud Logging, Pre-Training Guide
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  Geological and Mud Logging in Drilling Control
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  The Expanding Role of Mud Logging by Schlumberger
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Operational Manual for Mud Logging Engineers
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Drilling Fluids Reference Manual
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Wastewater Management of Drilling Fluids and Cuttings 
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OilWell Drilling Books Page.5

drillingthe biggest collection of oil well drilling books such as Drilling bits, Drilling Fluids, and Casing, links updated from time to time, all you have to do is to click on the icon under the required book name:

  Casing Dimensions, Materials and Strength

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 Drill Bit Technology

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  Drilling Fluids Part.1   

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  Introduction to Directional Drilling

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  Well head Components

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  BOPE – Description and Selection

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Casing Heads

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Coordinates Systems
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Drill Bits Hydraulics Calculations
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  Principles of Rheology

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Cementing Flashs

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Operation of Downhole Motor
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 Side Track Procedures
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MWD and LWD Measurement Tables
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 Shocks and Vibrations
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Anti Collision
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Well Design Fundamentals
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Basic Maths of Well Planning
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Drilling Manual Planning
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Well Cementing Part.1
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Well Cementing Part.2
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Horizontal Directional Drilling Guidelines
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well-control-methods
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Drilling Calculations part.1
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Drilling Calculations part.2
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Technical Data Book for Well Control
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Pressure Control During Oil Well Drilling
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Wellhead Safety
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Acidizing
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Well Control Equations
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Modern Well Analysis
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LWD and MWD
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Drilling preliminaries
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Drilling Handbook
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Subsurface Safety Equipment  
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drillingthe biggest collection of oil well drilling books such as Drilling bits, Managed Pressure drilling known as MDP, wireline, casing and well testing, all you have to do is to press on Download to get any book.

  a Guide to Drilling Basics
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  Inflow Performance Relationship
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  the Influence of Xcpolymer on Drilling Fluid Filter Cake Properties and Formation Damage
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Managed Pressure Drilling MPD

  Managed Pressure Drilling from SPE
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  Casing Design Manual
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  Introduction to Well Testing from Schlumburger
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  Formulas and Calculations for Drilling Production and Workover
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  Hydraulics Calculations Handbook from Schlumburger
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  What is Drilling?
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  Beam Pumping System
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  Under balance Drilling PowerPoint
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  the Petroleum System from Source to Trap
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  Identification Of Minimum Perforation Percentages analysis
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  Drilling Source Book
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  Rotary Drilling Series   206 MB
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  Horizontal Wells
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  Driller Stuck Pipe Handbook
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  Well Intervention and Workover
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  Drilling Procedure Manual
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  Oil & Gas Well Drilling Illustrated Glossary
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  Well Site Procedures and Operations
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  Advanced Oil Well Drilling Engineering
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  Pressure Control During Oil Well Drilling
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  Drilling Engineering Workbook
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  Introductory Well Testing
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  Well Control Datalog
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  Well Testing from SPE
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Drilling, a source book on oil and gas well drilling from exploration to completion
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  Managing Drilling Operations
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  the Drilling Manual   101 MB
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  Borehole Imaging , Applications and Case Histories
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   Pressure Control during Oil Well Drilling
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  Rig Personnel
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  Permanent Well Abandonment
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  Well Test Analysis – the Use of Advanced Interpretation Models
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   Introduction to Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Operations
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   Abbreviations in Drilling Site
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   Drilling Preliminaries
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  Hydrofracking- What Everyone Needs to know
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Defining Directional Drilling
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Rigs and Their Equipment
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Petroleum Rock Mechanics, drilling operations and Well Design
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Subsurface Safety Equipment from Halliburton
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Surface Safety Valve
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Applied Drilling Calculation  
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Books about Fishing 

Fishing cased hole
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  Fishing & Casing Repair – Jim Short Part.1     Download

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  Fishing Tools RAR
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  Oilwell Fishing Operations
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Books about Multilateral Drilling and Horizontal Wells

  Horizontal and Multilateral Well Technology
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   Key Issues in Multilateral Drilling
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  Application and Needs for Advanced Multilateral Technologies and Strategies
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  Multilateral Wells
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 Modeling of Inflow Well Performance of Multilateral Wells
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  Optimization of Multilateral Well Design SPE Paper
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  Horizontal ,Directional and Multilateral Directional Drilling
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  Economic Comparison of Multi‐Lateral Drilling over Horizontal Drilling
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  Multilateral Wells Technology from Total
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 Pressure Control During Oil Well Drilling
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 AC and DC Drives for Oil Drilling
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  How to Drill a Well

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  Well Drilling Methods

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  subsurface safety valves

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  Subsurface Safety Equipment

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  Drilling and Oil Well Development

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Casing Reference Tables

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  Cementing SPE Series
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  Weatherford Cementing Program Handbook
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  Well Cementing from Schlumberger
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  Cement Slurries for Geothermal Wells
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  Well Cementing Technology
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  Oil and Gas Well Cementing
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  Cement and Cementing
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  Cement Chemistry and Additives
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  Cementing Handbook – George Suman
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   Halliburton Cementing tables
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  Cementing Basics
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  from Mud to Cement
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  Oil and Gas Well Cementing

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  Preparation of Expanding Oil Well Cements
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  What is Cementing?
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  Cement Technology
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  Drilling Casing Design   141 MB
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 Well Productivity Awareness School Manual
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  Single Phase and Multiphase Fluid Flow in Horizontal Wells
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  Oil Shale Formation Evaluation by Well Logs and Core measurement
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Coiled Tubing Books

  Coiled Tubing Handbook
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Coiled Tubing the Future of Underbalanced Drilling
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  Coiled Tubing Unit
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  Introduction to Coiled Tubing
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  Coiled Tubing Innovative Rigless Interventions
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  Coiled Tubing Surface Equipment
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  Coiled Tubing Hydraulics Modeling
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  Drilling Operations
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 Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing eTool
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  Oil Water Contact Analysis and Hydrocarbon Saturation Estimation based on Well Logging data
Download


  a Selection Method of the Horizontal Wells Completion
Download


  LWD & MWD
Download


 Well Completion Books

Advanced Well Completion Engineering

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  Well Completion and Servicing
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  Well Completion Design
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  Completion Engineering Description
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  Completion Design Manual
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   Completion Methods
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  Drilling Well Completion Carl Gatlin
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  Drilling & Completion of Horizontal Wells
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  Drilling & Completion of Horizontal Wells PowerPoint
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  Basic Well Completion Concepts
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  Completion Process from Halliburton
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  Drilling Phase, Drilling Casing and Completion Operations
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  Well Completions and Production of Petroleum Resources
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 Well Completions and Production Practices

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  Well Completion Maintenance Abandonment Guideline
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  Sandface Completion Handbook 

Download


  Completion Hydraulics Handbook from Schlumburger
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   Completion Premiere from Schlumburger
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  Well Completion from Sonatrach
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Modern Sandface Completion Handbook  
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  Working Guide to Drilling Equipment & Operations
Download



go to Drilling Books page 4

OilWell Drilling Books page.2

Reliability Analysis of Blowout Preventer Systems
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  Deepwater Horizon Blowout Preventer Failure Analysis
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Blow Out Preventers “BOP” Books  

BOP Basic Safety Functions
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  BOP and Control System
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  Surface BOP Well Control
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  BOPs   Download


  Blow Out Preventer  Download


     BOP Stack & Control System
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   what is BOP
Download


  BOP Test Manual
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  Petroleum Well Construction
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 Drilling Engineering Laboratory Manual
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 Drilling, Fishing & Completion
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 Drilling Assembly handbook
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  Choosing Perforation Strategy
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 a new optimization model for 3D well design
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  Stress & Drilling Directions
Download


  Advanced Wireline & MWD Procedures
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  Drilling Design Programs RAR
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  Drilling Training
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  Experimental Study of Drilling Rheology
Download


  Rotary Drilling Unit RAR
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  Wireline Logging
Download


   Overhead Drilling
Download


   Oil Base Drilling System
Download


  Safety Indicators for Drilling
Download


  Casing Design
Download


 Pressure Buildup & Flow Tests in wells Mathews & Russels
Download


 Workover Design & Operation   71 MB
Download


  Handbook of Oil and Gas Operations-Vol II-Drilling-Christopher Franklin
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 Advanced Well Stimulation
Download


 Drilling Sequences
Download


  Well Design & Well Integrity
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  Drilling Terms & Abbreviations
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  Wireline Testing
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  Flow in Vertical Tubing
Download


  Gradient or Pressure Travers Curves
Download


  Quick Drilling Calculations
Download


  Oil Well Drilling Site Preparation
Download


  Formulas & Calculations for Drilling, Production & WO   1st Edition       Download

  Formulas & Calculations for Drilling, Production & WO 2nd Edition      Download


  Applied Open Hole Analysis
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  Introduction to Well testing from Schlumberger
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  Well Test Design and Analysis    130 MB
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  Drilling and Mud Logging
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  Underbalanced Drilling – Limits and Extremes
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  Wellhead Christmas Tree
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  Drilling Rig Components Hayder Lazim English+Arabic
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  Wellhead Basics
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  Drilling Tools
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  IWCF from Shell
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 Well Engineering and Construction – Hussain Rabie
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  IADC V.11
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  Oil Well Drilling Machines
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  Oil Well Drilling Process
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  Introduction to Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Well Operations
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  Casing and liners for drilling and completion design and application
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  Introduction to Drilling
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  Subsurface Safety Valve Basics
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  the brief in Oil Well Drilling
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  Well Heads, Chokes and SSSV
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Casing Reference Tables
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Simulating Underbalanced Drilling 
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Oilwell Drilling Books Page.1

DrillingPage 1

  Sand Control Overview
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 Perforating Solutions from Halliburton

Download


 Drilling Technology

Download


Well Control Books

  Well Control B1  259 MB

Download


Well Control 146 MB
Download


 Blowout & Well Control Handbook

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  Well Control & IWCF  RAR

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  Drilling Practices Manual – Moore

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 Drilling Assembly Handbook

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 Well Control Manual part.1 from Well Control School      Download

 Well Control Manual part.2 from Well Control School      Download


  Well Control Equipment  ZIP   21 MB

Download


Well Control Equipment RAR 1.8 MB
Download


 Kicks & Well Control

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 Wild Well Control

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 Well Control – ABERDEEN Drilling School

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  Well Control Course
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Well Intervention Presssure Control (IWCF)  76 MB
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Well Control for the Drilling Team
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Pressure Control During Oil well Drilling

Download


Directional Drilling Books

 Directional Drilling  PowerPoint

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  Directional Drilling Technology  PowerPoint

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  Directional Drilling from Schlumberger    68 MB

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  Drilling and Completion of Horizontal Drilling

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 Introduction to Directional Drilling

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 Controlled Directional Drilling

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  Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling

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  Directional Drilling from Baker Hughes

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   Horizontal Drilling

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  a Review of Horizontal Well Drilling

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Drilling Rig Books

  Drilling Rig RAR
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  Drilling Rig Components

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 Types of Drilling Rigs

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   Drilling Rig Inspection Checklist

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  Rig Components & Personnel

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  Drilling Rig Operations A to Z

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  Drilling Rig Illustrated Glossary

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  drilling Rigs and Practices from ENI

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Drilling Engineering

Drilling Engineering 350 MB

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  Applied Drilling Engineering   61 MB

Download


Advanced Oil Well Drilling Engineering
Download


Drilling Engineering, Dipl & Prassl

Download


  Applied Drilling Engineering ,  Part.1     Download

  Applied Drilling Engineering ,  Part.2     Download

 Applied Drilling Engineering , Part.3     Download

Applied Drilling Engineering , Part.4     Download

Applied Drilling Engineering , Part.5     Download


 Applied Drilling Engineering

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  Drilling Data Handbook

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  Drilling Engineering    14 MB

Download


   Applied Drilling Engineering    60 MB

Download


  Basic Drilling Engineering  PowerPoint

Download


   Drilling Engineering Workbook Neal Adams

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Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering
Download


Drilling Engineering Handbook from Baker Hughes
Download


Drilling Engineering 95 MB
Download


  Drilling Engineering    2.5 MB

Download


Applied Drilling Engineering from SPE
Download



Oilwell Drilling Course2

Drillingthe biggest collection of FREE movies about Oil Well Drilling , it contains movies about:
well casing – cementing & cement additives – Drilling mud systems & additives – Blow Out Preventers BOP – Drilling bits – well logging – directional drilling – drilling rig – Permeability  & Porosity.

Permeability
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Trapping Mechanism
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Porosity
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 Water Flooding
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 Water Flooding
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 Enhanced Oil Recovery with Permanent CO2 Storage
Download Link 1         


 UnderGround Injection Wells
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 Well Cementing
Download Link 1          Download Link 2


 Oil Drilling Machine
Download Link 1        Download Link 2


  Petroleum Engineers
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 Oil Rig Coiled Tubing Animation
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Cementing
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 Drilling Bits
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  Fishing Operations
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 Typical Downhole Drilling
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  3D Oil Drilling
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  Directional Drilling Rig
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  Basics of Well Completion
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   Oil & Gas Wells from Start to End
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  BOPs in Subsea platforms
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  Directional Drilling Rig
Download


  Jackup Drilling Rig – How Does it Work?
Download


  Connection on a Drilling Rig
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  Drilling Fluids Monitoring – Well Control Events
Download


  Drilling Techniques
Download


  Drilling Fluids Monitoring – Operational Efficiency
Download


  Drilling Fluid Overview elementary
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  Introduction to Drilling Fluids Monitoring
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  3D Animation of Drilling Rig
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  Casing
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  Rig Types and Basic Drill String Components
Download


  What are Drill Bits?
Download


  Well Logging in Offshore Drilling
Download


  How Drilling Mud Works in Offshore Rig?
Download


  Well Completion – Cased and Perforated
Download


  Well Completion – Perforation
Download


 Well Logging – SP and GR Logs
Download


 Well Test – DST Direct Information
Download


 Well Test – DST Operation P vs T
Download


 Well test – Qualitative DST Chart-1
Download


 How to care & maintain of Mud Pump
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 How does water base mud works in Offshore Rig
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 CCS (Continuous Circulation Drilling System)
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 How does Mud Engineer work on Offshore Rig
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 Drilling Fluid Circulation System ( Mud )
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 Introduction to UnderBalanced and OverBalanced Drilling
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 Managed Pressure Drilling MPD
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 Drilling Fluids Overview
Download


  Openhole Fishing
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Openhole Fracture Completion System

Download Link 


Gas Well BlowoutDownload Link 1        Download Link 2

Oilwell Drilling course

Drilling

Oil Drilling Videos: the biggest collection of FREE movies about Oil Well Drilling , it contains movies about:

well casing – cementing & cement additives – Drilling mud systems & additives – Blow Out Preventers BOP – Drilling bits – well logging – directional drilling – drilling rig – Permeability  & Porosity.


  AC to DC Power Systems in Oil & Gas Rig
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 Overview of Oil & Gas Rig Power Systems
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  Drill Stem Testing
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 WireLine
Download 


  Mud Logging / Testing
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  Well Casing
Download 


  Well Cementing
Download 


  Well Casing & Cementing
Download


 Spinning & Torquing Devices
Download


  Pipe Transfer
Download 


  Control for Equipment in Oil & Gas Wells
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  Drilling Slips
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  Drilling Elevator
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  Tripping with a Top Drive in Oil & Gas Drilling.
Download 


   Hoisting Equipment in Oil & Gas wells drilling
Download 


  Tripping In & Out with Kelly in Oil & Gas Drilling.
Download 


  Overview of Pipe Handling.
Download


  Oil & Gas Well Casing Accessories
Download 


  Well Masts & Derricks
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  Well Evaluation
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  Kelly & Rotary Table
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  Mud System Overview
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  Mud Storage tanks, Reserve Pit
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  Mud Pump Components
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  Drilling Mud Conditioning
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  Mud Tests
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  Mud Properties & Additives
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  Drilling Mud Function

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   Land Rigs
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  Platform Rig
Download


  Top Drive System
Download 


  Submersible Rig
Download 


  Rig Type
Download 


  Mud Gas Separator
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  Drill Ship
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  Drill Pipe
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  Well Pressure Control Overview
Download 


  Well Kick
Download 


  Well Blowout
Download 


  Surface BOP Equipment
Download 


  Trip Tank

Download


  Subsea BOP Equipment
Download 


  Mud Motor
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  Drilling Stabilizer
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 Drilling Mud
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 Drilling Jar
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 Drilling Collar
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 Drill Bits
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 Directional Wells
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 Blow Out Preventer BOP Stack
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 Measurement While Drilling MWD
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Kelly System in Oil Drilling

Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Instrument of Drilling Rig
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Jackup Rig
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Crossover Subs
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 Drill String valves
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


 Heavy Wall Drill Pipe
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 Overview of Rotating Equipment
Download 


 Drilling Line
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 Drawworks Traveling Block Hook
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 Crown Block
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 Introduction to Cementing
Download 


 Mud Cleaning & Settling
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 Perforating Gun making
Download 


 Blow Out Preventers BOPs

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 Blow Out Preventers BOPs 

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  Cement Additives Part.1        Download Link 1     Download Link 2

  Cement Additives Part.2        Download Link 1     Download Link 2

  Cement Additives Part.3        Download Link 1     Download Link 2

   Cement Additives Part.4      Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Casing Wellhead Animation
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  Drilling Fluids Monitoring
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  Drilling Mud Pumps
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 Components of Drilling Fluids
Download 


  Cement Thickening Time Test
Download 


 Deep Water BOP
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 Well Logging Tools & Techniques   Download 

 Well Logging Part.2    Download 

 Well Logging Part.3     Download 

 Well Logging Part.4    Download 


  Formation Evaluation Using Well Logging Measurement
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  Mud Density Correction
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 Components of Drilling Fluids
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  Underbalanced Drilling
Download 


 Directional Drilling Part.1    Download 

 Directional Drilling Part.2    Download 

 Directional Drilling Part.3    Download 


 Introduction to Well Logging
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 Neutron Logs Part.1      Download 

 Neutron Logs Part.2      Download 


 The Dipmeter
Download


 Ground Drilling Animation
Download


 Drilling Fluids Functions
Download


  Schlumberger Shock Vibration in Drilling Environment
Download 


 Water Drive
Download 


 GeoPhysics
Download 


 Hydraulic Fracturing Method
Download


 Fluid Phase Behavior and Classification
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


  Explaining Fracking with Animation
Download Link 1     Download Link 2



Go to Page 2

Schlumberger Drilling Training Course

Schlumberger

this course consists of 10 CDs, supports 6 languages “English – French – Spanish – Portuguese – Indonesian & Arabic” , it contains all what you need in petroleum well drilling such as:
Drilling Rig – Drilling machines – Drilling Mud – Drilling Fluids – Drilling Mud treatment – Pipe Handling – Rotary Equipment – Casing & Cementing – Well Logging – Mud Logging – BOPs ..etc

all you have to do is to press one of the two links below each CD, and you will be redirected to the download page,

CD-01 An Introduction to Drilling Rigs & Main Components of Drill String.
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-02 BOP Equipment
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-03 Drilling Fluids & Mud Test
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-04 Mud Circulation & Treating Equipment
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-05 Hoisting Equipment
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-06 Rotating Equipment & Mast Substructure.
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


 CD-07 Pipe Handling
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-08 Casing & Cementing
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


  CD-09 Well Logging, Mud Logging and Drill Stem Test.
Download Link 1      Download Link 2

  CD-10 Power System and Instruments
Download Link 1      Download Link 2

Offshore Movies

offshore platformOffshore Movies

in this section you will find very useful movies about offshore platforms – drilling – deepwater – drill rig – drill ship and other offshore platforms.

Offshore Platform
Download


Offshore Platform Installation
Download


Offshore Drilling Animation
Download


How a Deepwater Well is Drilled?
Download


Scientific Deep Sea Drilling and Coring Technology
Download


Offshore Platform Construction With Subsea Drilling System
Download


Deepwater Drilling
Download


Offshore Installations and Drilling Rigs in Norway
Download


Offshore Rig Operations
Download


DrillShip Specification
Download


Deepwater Production Jumper to produce Oil and Natural Gas
Download


Overview on Deepwater Drilling
Download


Offshore Oil Drilling Industry – Full Documentary
Download


Oil Rig – Offshore Platform (Perdido construction)
Download


Offshore Platform Construction  Arabic
Download


Offshore Deepwater Drilling Process 
Download Link 1        Download Link 2

Measurement While Drilling MWD

MWD
MWD

The use of measurement and logging while drilling has matured a great deal in the last 10 years.  The use of these tools that have been developed for the oil and gas industry for use in primarily sedimentary depositional environments must be investigated in light of the goals set for EGS systems.  Let us first define what is meant in this section by the terms, realizing that the line between these two areas continue to blur.

1)      Measurement While Drilling (MWD): Tools that measure downhole parameters of the bit interaction with the rock are MWD tool.  These measurements typically include vibration and shock, mudflow rate, direction and angle of the bit, weight on bit, torque on bit, and downhole pressure.

2)      Logging While Drilling (LWD): Tools that measure downhole formation parameters are LWD tools.  These include gamma ray, porosity, resistivity and many other formation properties.  The measurements fall into several categories that are discussed below.  The oldest and perhaps most fundamental formation measurements are spontaneous potential (SP) and gamma ray (GR).  Today one or both of these traces are used mostly for correlation between logs.  Electric or formation resistivity logs are another class of logs used in oil and gas logging.  Because of the long history of these logs, several varieties have evolved.  The electrical basis of this class of logs is to measure the conductivity or resistivity of the various geologic materials and fluids in them.  The resistivity of shales vs that of a clean sand set the limits for an ideal electric log.  The fluids in the formation also are reflected in this measurement as water is conductive when found in boreholes and oil is not.  The basic use of electric logs is to delineate bed boundaries and in combination with other logs to determine gas/oil/water contacts.  Yet another class of logs is density logs.  These logs are indicative of the formation density of the material in the well bore.  These logs require either a neutron or a gamma source, and actually measure gamma ray flux differences.  Porosity tools are another class of common logging tools.  These tools normally use chemically or now more common electrically generated neutron to estimate formation porosity.  Since these logs are normally calibrated in sandstone, limestone or dolomite care has to be taken when measurements are made in different rock types.  Finally in the last few years a number of specialty tools have evolved, these include specialized formation pressure testing tools which can be run while drilling, nuclear magnetic resonance tools, and pulsed neutron spectroscopy tools to list only the most popular.

Rationale for use

In recent years the cost of an average oil and gas hole has increased dramatically, part of this cost increase has been driven by the need to go after much deeper and more complicated reserves.  This increases the risk of failure of holes drilled into these reserves.  As a reaction to increased risk, the use of LWD and MWD technology and techniques has increased.  In the final analysis, the decision to use of LWD and MWD tools depends on managing risk.  The EGS program moves the art of geothermal drilling into a new region of risk, the evaluation of the LWD and MDW technologies must be undertaken to determine the applicability of these technologies to the particular risks faced in this new effort.  It is important to realize in the EGS model, in many cases we are not going to be setting our surface casing into igneous or metamorphic rock as we have in the past.  These deeper holes may look more like the classic oil and gas hole at the shallower depths, with this in mind we begin to examine the possible uses of the LWD and MWD technologies.  We begin by listing what is commonly available.

Measurements available from current LWD/MWD oil field tools.

Mention of companies and tool or service names does not imply endorsement by Sandia National Laboratories; it appears that most companies involved in MWD and LWD have a version of these tools.  Searching the internet is a reasonable way to get most of this information.

Measurement Name: Downhole Weight On Bit Abbreviation:  DWOB
Class: MWD Measurement Function:
Max Temp: 175ºC Length: 25’
Current Oil Field Use :
This trace allows the determination of the actual weight on bit at the bit.
Potential Geothermal  Use:
The DWD program has shown that this measurement can be used to detect bit-damaging events and prolong bit life
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger TeleScope
Baker Hughes Inteq CoPilot (service)
Measurement Name: Downhole Torque On Bit Abbreviation: DTOB
Class: MWD Measurement Function:
Max Temp: 175ºC Length: 25’
Current Oil Field Use :
This trace allows the determination of the actual torque on bit.
Potential Geothermal  Use:
The DWD program has shown the use of this measurement in prolonging bit life and providing an effective drilling program.
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger TeleScope
Baker Hughes Inteq CoPilot (service)
Measurement Name:  Downhole flow rate Abbreviation:
Class: MWD Measurement Function:
Max Temp: 175ºC Length: 25’
Current Oil Field Use :
This measurement allows the determination of the mudflow rate at or near the bit.
Potential Geothermal  Use:
The rolling float meter program has shown that this measurement in combination with a good measurement of return flow is critical in detecting lost circulation events.  The DWD program has shown the use of this measurement in detecting pipe washout and bit plugging conditions.
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger TeleScope
Measurement Name:  3-D Shock Abbreviation:
Class: MWD Measurement Function:
Max Temp: 175ºC Length: 25’
Current Oil Field Use :
This trace used in combination with 3-D vibration is used to monitor bit conditions.  Avoiding shock loads has been shown to increase bit life
Potential Geothermal  Use:
Same as oil field  but more critical in harder formations.
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger TeleScope
Baker Hughes Inteq VSS (service)
Measurement Name: 3-D Vibration Abbreviation:
Class: MWD Measurement Function:
Max Temp: 175ºC Length: 25’
Current Oil Field Use :
This trace used in combination with 3-D shhock is used to monitor bit conditions.  Avoiding damaging vibrations  has been shown to increase bit life, and increase ROP. Also used to determine RPM at bit
Potential Geothermal  Use:
Same as oil field  but more critical in harder formations.  RPM determination critical to avoiding several bit damaging situations.
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger TeleScope
Baker Hughes Inteq CoPilot (service)
Measurement Name: Direction and Inclination Abbreviation:  D&I
Class: MWD Measurement Function:
Max Temp: 175ºC Length: 25’
Current Oil Field Use :
These traces are used in directional drilling.  Both are required to control bit position
Potential Geothermal  Use:
Would be used in directional drilling applications.
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger TeleScope
Measurement Name: Azimuthal Natural Gamma Ray Abbreviation: GR
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Gamma Ray
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 26’
Current Oil Field Use :
This trace measures the naturally occurring gamma radiation in several directions from the borehole. The trace is used to identify shales and clays as opposed to sands in lithologic sequences.  Processed trace is a primary correlation  trace between logs run at differing times.
Potential Geothermal  Use:
Gamma ray is primary correlation trace particularly in cased hole.
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger EcoScope
Measurement Name: Multi-frequency resistivity Abbreviation:
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Electric
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 26’
Current Oil Field Use :
This measurement in oil and gas logging provide bed boundary and gas/oil/water contact information.
Potential Geothermal  Use:
Could be used in sedimentary sequence for bed boundary identification.  Usefulness in metamorphic and igneous formation is undocumented.
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger EcoScope
Measurement Name: Sonic Abbreviation:
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Sonic
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 23’
Current Oil Field Use :
This measurement set provides information on porosity, mechanical rock properties and borehole stability.
Potential Geothermal  Use:
The borehole stability information would be a greatest value
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger sonicVision
Baker Hughes Inteq SoundTrak
Measurement Name: Multi-frequency, multi-depth resistivity Abbreviation:
Class: LWD Measurement Function:  Special/Electrical
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 11’
Current Oil Field Use :
This tool is intended formation imaging.  Used for fracture identification and finding stress orientation.  Use in non-sedimentary formation is undocumented.  Also provides temperature data.
Potential Geothermal Use:
This tool may find use in advanced directional drilling applications.  If fracture imaging can be done in non-sedimentary geologies may be useful for fracture mapping and stress orientation
Special Conditions: Requires use of conductive mud system. Example Tool: Schlumberger GeoVision
Baker Hughes Inteq StarTrak; AziTrak
Measurement Name: Annular pressure Abbreviation: APWD
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Pressure
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 26’
Current Oil Field Use :
This trace measures the pressure near the BHA-open hole interface.
Potential Geothermal  Use:This trace would be used to determine areas where lost circulation may be occurring.
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger EcoScope
Baker Hughes Inteq PressTEQ (service)
Measurement Name: Azimuthal Density Abbreviation:
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Density
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 26’
Current Oil Field Use :
This trace measures the formation density in multiple  directions out from the bore hole.  Used in combination with other measurements for formation lithology identification
Potential Geothermal  Use:
This trace could be used in directional holes to drill along a bed boundary
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger EcoScope
Baker Hughes Inteq LithoTrak
Measurement Name: Compensated Neutron Abbreviation: CN
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Porosity
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 26’
Current Oil Field Use :
This measurement is used to estimate porosity.  This trace is integrated in most logging tools as a part of a triple combo.
Potential Geothermal  Use:
Same as oil field use
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger EcoScope
Baker Hughes Inteq APLS
Measurement Name: Photoelectric Factor Abbreviation:
Class: LWD Measurement Function:  Special
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 26’
Current Oil Field Use :
This trace measures the average atomic number of the formation constituents, used with density to determine mineralogy.
Potential Geothermal  Use:
Same as oil field use
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger EcoScope
Measurement Name: Ultrasonic Caliper Abbreviation:
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Borehole
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 26’
Current Oil Field Use :
Measures the hole size directly behind the bit.  Used to determine size of hole and rugosity
Potential Geothermal  Use:
Same as oil field use.
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger EcoScope
Baker Hughes Inteq LithoTrak
Measurement Name: Porosity Abbreviation:
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Porosity
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 26’
Current Oil Field Use :
This trace measures the apparent porosity of the formation based on fast neutrons emitted by a neutron source.  Neutron source may be chemical or electrical in nature.
Potential Geothermal  Use:
This trace could be used to in the estimation of formation porosity
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger EcoScope
Baker Hughes Inteq LithoTrak
Measurement Name: Sigma Abbreviation: Ѕ
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Special
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 26’
Current Oil Field Use : This trace is a measure of the macroscopic absorption cross section for thermal neutrons, used to determine formation water saturation. Potential Geothermal  Use:
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger EcoScope
Measurement Name: Pulsed neutron spectroscopy Abbreviation:
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Special
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 26’
Current Oil Field Use : This measurement utilizes a pulsed neutron source, and gamma ray detectors to estimate formation oil content, salinity, lithology, porosity and clay content.   Potential Geothermal  Use:This trace could be used to in the estimation of porosity and the determination of lithology
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger EcoScope
Measurement Name: Nuclear magnetic resonance Abbreviation:
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Special
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 39’
Current Oil Field Use : This measurement is used to determine free and bound fluid volumes, fluid type, porosity and permeability estimation. Potential Geothermal  Use:This trace could be used to in the estimation formation porosity and permeability.
Special Conditions :
Informal conversations with persons who have used this tool indicate that its use is best understood in sandstone.
Example Tool:
Sperry MRIL-WD
Baker Hughes Inteq MagTrak
Measurement Name: Seismic Abbreviation:
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Special
Max Temp: 150 ºC Length: 14’
Current Oil Field Use : Data derived from this tool is used to look-ahead for formation changes, pore pressure changes and faults. Potential Geothermal  Use:
Same as oilfield uses
Special Conditions : Requires active seismic source on surface Example Tool:Schlumberger  seismic Vision
Measurement Name: Formation Pressure Abbreviation:
Class: LWD Measurement Function: Pressure
Max Temp: 150ºC Length: 31.5’
Current Oil Field Use : This tool measures the formation pressure and fluid mobility while drilling.  This measurement can replace some drill-stem (DST) formation test measurements.  Device seals against borehole wall and isolated formation from drilling fluids for testing.  This measurement is also used to drilling optimization. Potential Geothermal  Use:Sam
e as oil field use
Special Conditions : None Example Tool: Schlumberger Stethoscope
Baker Hughes Inteq TesTrak

Commentary

As one can see from the list, most tools are rated to 150ºC.  Some measurements can be made up to 175ºC.  These tools provide limited bandwidth data to the surface via mud pulse telemetry and higher bandwidth data via large onboard memories, which can be unloaded as a part of a bit trip.

The Sandia DWD program provided a limited MWD tool for testing.  While this tool was much more difficult to operate than the mud pulse telemetry tools listed above it did provide a great deal of data and demonstrated the usefulness of a MWD tool in optimizing drilling parameters with respect to drilling performance and extending bit life.  Extensive reviews of this work have been published and presented by others, and may be of interest to some readers.  One class of measurement that was not present in the DWD tool that is present in most current MWD tool is direction and inclination, which are critical in directional drilling.  The case for MWD tools in EGS is relatively clear.  The costs associated with damaged bits and BHA components clearly indicate the need for MWD.  In the longer term, if the use of directional drilling is contemplated MWD is a requirement.

The case for most LWD tools or traces will have to be made on a well-by-well basis.  As a minimum, one must comply with the individual states requirements for logging and MWD may be a viable option to meet these requirements for deeper holes.  MWD may not be required for the full duration of the drilling effort but certainly may be a requirement in deeper directionally drilled holes to assure that the hole is completed in the target area.   As has been noted most LWD traces and tools are optimized for drilling sedimentary formations; some experience will be required to determine the optimal MWD suite for EGS drilling programs.  With this in mind, the first few EGS programs should be funded and scheduled to provide for the evaluation of a wide variety of available MWD tool.  The basic limitation on the available tools is temperature, and accommodations will need to be made in the mud system and operational procedures to maintain the tools within their operational temperature ranges long enough to allow a reasonable evaluation.  After some experience is gained with the available tools efforts to construct tools suitable for higher temperatures could begin.

While the least complex of these measurements can be telemetered to the surface via mud pulse technology, the more complex, data dense applications will require a higher speed telemetry systems and indeed may require two way communication.  Here the use of a wired pipe system such as the intelliserv system will be required.  Looking back on the previous drilling efforts such as the Long Valley drilling project, there has always been a desire by the scientific community to use these precious drilling opportunities to test new and different ideas and tools.  The adoption of a standard telemetry system such as the intelliserv network early in the life of the drilling program would encourage a well disciplined scientific program and provide a framework on which the scientific community could plan their programs in a way that would minimally interfere with the drilling program.

Summary

Just as it would not be reasonable to try to up the efficiency of the countries truck fleet  by looking solely at replacing all tires in use today with tires that lower rolling friction; rather one needs to step back and look at the entire system including routing and deadheading for a quick example;  the selection of MWD and LWD tools must be driven by the entire EGS system. The selection of tools that is currently available at lower temperatures is more that sufficient.  One needs to look at the needs as generated from a broad system outlook and then upgrade the temperature capabilities of the necessary MWD and LWD tools.  A far more challenging task is to evaluate how these tools mostly designed and used in sedimentary environments will react in the EGS environment.  This project should be undertaken early in the development of EGS wells and will require a theoretical as well as a practical side.  If as is expected that directional drilling is an important part of the overall EGS effort, understanding how to control and direct these drilling tools with the available MWD  and LWD modules will be a major effort.

Directional Drilling Glossary

directional drilling
directional drilling

The glossary of terms used in directional drilling has been developed by the API Subcommittee on Controlled Deviation Drilling under the jurisdiction of the American Petroleum Institute Production Department’s Executive Committee on Drilling and Production Practice. The most frequently used terms listed below.

Angle of inclination (angle of drift). The angle, in degrees, taken at one at several points of variation from the vertical as revealed by a deviation survey, sometimes called the inclination or angle of deviation.

Angle of twist. The azimuth change through which the drillstring must be turned to offset the twist caused by the reactive torque of the downhole motor.

Anisotrospic formation theory. Stratifiedor antisotropic formations are assumed to posses different drill abilities parallel and normal to the bedding planes with the result that the bit does not drill in the direction of the resultant force.

zimuth. Direction of a course measured in a clockwise direction from 0◦ to 360◦; also called bearing.

Back-torque. Torque on a drill string causing a twisting of the string.

Bent sub. Sub used on top of a downhole motor to give a non straight bottom assembly. One of the connecting threads in machined at an angle to the axis of the body of the sub.

Big-eyed bit. Drill bit with one large-sized jet nozzle, used for jet deflection.

Bit stabilization. Refers to stabilization of the downhole assembly near the bit; a stabilized bit is forced to rotate around its own axis.

Borehole direction. Refers to the azimuth in which the borehole is heading.

Borehole directional survey. Refers to the measurements of the inclinations, azimuths and specified depths of the stations through a section of borehole.

Bottom-hole assembly (BHA). Assembly composed of the drill bit, stabilizers, reamers, drill collars, subs, etc., used at the bottom of the drillstring.

Bottomhole location. Position of the bottom of the hole with respect to some known surface location.

Bottomhole orientation sub (BHO). A sub in which a free-floating ball rolls to the low side and opens a port indicating an orientation position.

Build-and-hold wellbore. A wellbore configuration where the inclination is increased to some terminal angle of inclination and maintained at that angle to the specified target.

Buildup. That portion of the hole in which the angle of inclination is increased.

Buildup rate. Rate of change (◦/100 ft) of the inclination angle in the section of the hole where the inclination from the vertical is increasing.

Clearance. Space between the outer diameter of the tool in question and the side of the drilled hole; the difference in the diameter of the hole and the tool.

Clinograph. An instrument to measure and record inclination.

Closed traverse. Term used to indicate the closeness of two surveys; one survey going in the hole and the second survey coming out of the hole.

Corrective jetting runs. Action taken with a directional jet bit to change the direction or inclination of the borehole.

Course. The axis of the borehole over an interval length.

Course bearing. The azimuth of the course.

Crooked-hole. Wellbore that has been inadvertently deviated from a straight hole.

Crooked-hole area. An area where subsurface formations are so composed or arranged that it is difficult to drill a straight hole.

Cumulative fatigue damage. The total fatigue damage caused by repeated cyclic stresses.

Deflection tools. Drilling tools and equipment used to change the inclination and direction of the drilled wellbore.

Departure. Horizontal displacement of one station from another.

Fulcrum technique. Utilizes a bending moment principle to create a force on that the bit to counteract reaction forces that are tending to push the bit in a given direction.

Mechanical technique. Utilizes bottomhole equipment which is not normally a part of the conventional drillstring to aid deviation control. This equipment acts to force the bit to turn the hole in direction and inclination.

Packed-hole technique. Utilizes the hole wall to minimize bending of the bottomhole assembly.

Pendulum techniques. The basic principle involved is gravity or the “plumb-bob effect.”

Directional drilling contractor. A service company that supplies the special deflecting tools, BHA, survey instruments and a technical representative to perform the directional drilling aspects of the operation.

Direction of inclination. Direction of the course.

Dogleg. Total curvature in the wellbore consisting of a change of inclination and/or direction between two points.

Dogleg severity. A measure of the amount of change in the inclination and/or direction of a borehole; usually expressed in degrees per 100 ft of course length.

Drag. The extra force needed to move the drill string resulting from the drill string being in contact with the wall of the hole.

Drainholes. Several high-angle holes drilled laterally form a single wellbore into the producing zone.

Drift angle. The angle between the axis of the wellbore and the vertical.

Drop off. The portion of the hole in which the inclination is reduced.

Drop-off rate. Rate of change (◦/100 ft) of the inclination angle in the section of the wellbore that is decreasing toward vertical.

Goniometer. An instrument for measuring angles, as in surveying.

Gyroscopic survey. A directional survey conducted using a gyroscope for directional control, usually used where magnetic directional control cannot be obtained.

Hole curvature. Refers to changes in inclination and direction of the borehole.

Hydraulic orienting sub. Used in directional holes with inclination greater than 6◦ to find the low side of the hole. A ball falls to the low side of the sub and restrict an orifice, causing an increase in the circulating pressure. The position of the tool is know with relation to the low side of the hole.

Hydraulically operated bent sub. A deflection sub that is activated by hydraulic pressure of the drilling fluid.

Inclination angle. The angle of the wellbore from the vertical.

Inclinometer. An instrument that measures an angle of deviation from the vertical.

Jet bit deflection. A method of changing the inclination angle and direction of the wellbore by using the washing action of a jet nozzle at one side of the bit.

Keyseat. A condition wherein the borehole is abraded and extended sideways, and with a diameter smaller than the drill collars and bit; usually caused by the tool joints on the drill pipe.

Kickoff point (kickoff depth). The position in the well bore where the inclination of the hole is first purposely increased (KOP).

Lead angle. A method of setting the direction of the wellbore in anticipation of the bit walking.

Magnetic declination. Angular difference, east or west, at any geographical location, between true north or grid north and magnetic north.

Magnetic survey. A directional survey in which the direction is determined by a magnetic compass aligning with the earth’s magnetic field.

Measured depth. Actual length of the wellbore from its surface location to any specified station.

Mechanical orienting tool. A device to orient deflecting tools without the use of subsurface surveying instruments.

Methods of orientation

Direct method. Magnets embedded in the nonmagnetic drill collar are used to indicate the position of the tool facewith respect to magnetic north. A picture of a needle compass pointing to the magnets is superimposed on the picture of a compass pointing to magnetic north. By knowing the position of the magnets in the tool, the tool can be positioned with respect to north.

Indirect method. A method of orienting deflecting tools in which two survey runs are needed, one showing the direction of the hole and the other showing the position of the tool.

Surface readout. A device on the rig floor to indicate the subsurface position of the tool

Stoking. Method of orienting a tool using two pipe clamps, a telescope with a hair line, and an aligning bar to determine the orientation at each section of pipe run in the hole.

Monel (K monel). A nonmagnetic alloy used in making portions of downhole tools in the bottomhole assembly (BHA), where the magnetic survey tools are placed for obtaining magnetic direction information. Monel refers to a family of nickel-copper alloys.

Mud motor. Usually a positive displacement or turbine-type motor, positioned above the bit to provide (power) torque and rotation to the bit without rotating the drillstirng.

Mule shoe. A shaped form used on the bottom of orienting tools to position the tool. The shape resembles a mule shoe or the end of a pipe that has been cut both diagonally and concave. The shaped end forms a wedge to rotate the tool when lowered into a mating seat for the mule shoe.

Multishot survey. A directional survey in which multiple data points are recorded with one trip into the wellbore. Data are usually recorded on rolls of film.

Near-bit stabilizer. A stabilizer placed in the bottomhole assembly just above the bit.

Ouija board (registered trademark of Eastern Whipstock). An instrument composed of two protractors and a straight scale that is used to determine the positioning for a deflecting tool in a inclined wellbore.

Permissible dogleg. A dogleg through which equipment and/or tubulars can be operated without failure.

Pendulum effect. Refers to the pull of gravity on a body; tendency of a pendulum to return to vertical position.

Pendulum hookup. A bit and drill collar with a stabilizer to attain the maximum effect of the pendulum.

Rat hole. A hole that is drilled ahead of the main wellbore and which is of a smaller diameter than the bit in the main borehole.

Reamer. A tool employed to smooth the wall of a wellbore, enlarge the hole, stabilize the bit and straighten the wellbore where kinks and abrupt doglegs are encountered.

Rebel tool (registered trademark of Eastman Whipstock). A tool designed to prevent and correct lateral drift (walk) of the bit tool. It consists of two paddles on a common shaft that are designed to push the bit in the desired direction.

Roll off. A correction in the facing of the deflection tool, usually determined by experience, and which must be taken into consideration to give the proper facing to the tool.

Setting off course. A method of setting the direction of the wellbore in anticipation of the bit walking.

Side track. An operation performed to redirect the wellbore by starting a new hole; at a position above the bottom of the original hole.

Slant hole. A non vertical hole; usually refers to a wellbore purposely inclined in a specific direction; also used to define a wellbore that is nonvertical at the surface.

Slant rig. Drilling rig specifically designed to drill a wellbore that is non vertical at the surface. The mast is slanted and special pipe-handling equipment is needed.

Spiraled wellbore. A wellbore that has attained a changing configuration such as a helical form.

Spud bit. In directional drilling, a special bit used to change the direction and inclination of the wellbore.

Stabilizer. A tool placed in the drilling assembly to Change or maintain the inclination angle in a wellbore by controlling the location of the contact point between the hole and drill collars. Center the drill collars near the bit to improve drilling performance. Prevent wear and differential sticking of the drill collars.

Surveying frequency. Refers to the number of feet between survey records.

Target area. A defined area, at a prescribed vertical depth, that is planned to be intersected by the wellbore.

Tool azimuth angle. The angle between north and the projection of the tool reference axis onto a horizontal plane.

Tool high-side angle. The angle between the tool reference axis and a line perpendicular to the hole axis and lying the vertical plane.

Total curvature. Implies three-dimensional curvature.

True north. The direction from any geographical location on the earth’s surface to the north geometric pole.

True vertical depth (TVD). The actual vertical depth of an inclined wellbore.

Turbodrill. A downhole motor that utilizes a turbine for power to rotate the bit.

Turn. A change in bearing of the hole; usually spoken of as the right or left turn with the orientation that of an observer who views the well course from the surface site.

Walk (of hole). The tendency of a wellbore to deviate in the horizontal plane.

Wellbore survey calculation method. Refers to the mathematical method and assumptions used in reconstructing the path of the wellbore and in generating the space curve path of the wellbore from inclination and direction angle measurements taken along the wellbore. These measurements are obtained from gyroscopic or magnetic instruments of either the single-shot or multishot type.

Whipstock. Along wedge and channel-shaped piece of steel with a collar at its top through which the subs and drillstring may pass. The face of the whipstock sets an angle to deflect the bit.

Woodpecker drill collar (indented drill collar). Round drill collarwith a series of indentations on one side to form an eccentrically weighted collar.

References:
1. Drilling Equipment and Operation.
2. drilling Operation

Drilling Fluids

Drilling Fluid Definitions and General Functions

Results of research has shown that penetration rate and its response to weight on bit and rotary speed is highly dependent on the hydraulic horsepower reaching the formation at the bit. Because the drilling fluid flow rate sets the system pressure losses and these pressure losses set the hydraulic horsepower across the bit, it can be concluded that the drilling fluid is as important in determining drilling costs as all other “controllable” variables combined. Considering these factors, an optimum drilling fluid is properly formulated so that the flow rate necessary to clean the hole results in the proper hydraulic horsepower to clean the bit for the weight and rotary

Drilling Muds and Completion Systems

speed imposed to give the lowest cost, provided that this combination of variables results in a stable borehole which penetrates the desired target. This definition incorporates and places in perspective the five major functions of a drilling fluid.

Cool and Lubricate the Bit and Drill String

Considerable heat and friction is generated at the bit and between the drill string and wellbore during drilling operations. Contact between the drill string and wellbore can also create considerable torque during rotation and drag during trips. Circulating drilling fluid transports heat away from these frictional sites, reducing the chance of premature bit failure and pipe damage. The drilling fluid also lubricates the bit tooth penetration through the bottom hole debris into the rock and serves as a lubricant between the wellbore and drill string, reducing torque and drag.

Clean the Bit and the Bottom of the Hole

If the cuttings generated at the bit face are not immediately removed and started toward the surface, they will be ground very fine, stick to the bit, and in general retard effective penetration into uncut rock.

Suspend Solids and Transport Cuttings and Sloughing to the Surface Drilling fluids must have the capacity to suspend weight materials and drilled solids during connections, bit trips, and logging runs, or they will settle to the low side or bottom of the hole. Failure to suspend weight materials can result in a reduction in the drilling fluids density, which can lead to kicks and potential of a blowout.

The drilling fluid must be capable of transporting cuttings out of the hole at a reasonable velocity that minimizes their disintegration and incorporation as drilled solids into the drilling fluid system and able to release the cuttings at the surface for efficient removal. Failure to adequately clean the hole or to suspend drilled solids can contribute to hole problems such as fill on bottom after a trip, hole pack-off, lost returns, differentially stuck pipe, and inability to reach bottom with logging tools.

Factors influencing removal of cuttings and formation sloughing and solids suspension include

  • Density of the solids
  • Density of the drilling fluid
  • Rheological properties of the drilling fluid
  • Annular velocity
  • Hole angle
  • Slip velocity of the cuttings or sloughings

Stabilize the Wellbore and Control Subsurface Pressures

Borehole instability is a natural function of the unequal mechanical stresses and physical-chemical interactions and pressures created when supporting material and surfaces are exposed in the process of drilling a well. The drilling fluid must overcome the tendency for the hole to collapse from mechanical failure or from chemical interaction of the formation with the drilling fluid. The Earth’s pressure gradient at sea level is 0.465 psi/ft, which is equivalent to the height of a column of salt water with a density (1.07 SG) of 8.94 ppg.

In most drilling areas, the fresh water plus the solids incorporated into the water from drilling subsurface formations is sufficient to balance the formation pressures. However, it is common to experience abnormally pressured formations that require high-density drilling fluids to control the formation pressures. Failure to control downhole pressures can result in an influx of formation fluids, resulting in a kick or blowout. Borehole stability is also maintained or enhanced by controlling the loss of filtrate to permeable formations and by careful control of the chemical composition of the drilling fluid.

Most permeable formations have pore space openings too small to allow the passage of whole mud into the formation, but filtrate from the drilling fluid can enter the pore spaces. The rate at which the filtrate enters the formation depends on the pressure differential between the formation and the column of drilling fluid and the quality of the filter cake deposited on the formation face. Large volumes of drilling fluid filtrate and filtrates that are incompatible with the formation or formation fluids may destabilize the formation through hydration of shale and/or chemical interactions between components of the drilling fluid and the wellbore.

Drilling fluids that produce low-quality or thick filter cakes may also cause tight hole conditions, including stuck pipe, difficulty in running casing, and poor cement jobs.

Assist in the Gathering of Subsurface Geological Data and Formation Evaluation

Interpretation of surface geological data gathered through drilled cuttings, cores, and electrical logs is used to determine the commercial value of the zones penetrated. Invasion of these zones by the drilling fluid, its filtrate (oil or water) may mask or interfere with interpretation of data retrieved or prevent full commercial recovery of hydrocarbon.

Other Functions

In addition to the functions previously listed, the drilling fluid should be environmentally acceptable to the area inwhich it is used. It should be noncorrosive to tubulars being used in the drilling and completion operations. Most importantly, the drilling fluid should not damage the productive formations that are penetrated.

The functions described here are a few of the most obvious functions of a drilling fluid. Proper application of drilling fluids is the key to successfully drilling in various environments.

Classifications

a generalized classification of drilling fluids can be based on their fluid phase, alkalinity, dispersion, and type of chemicals used in the formulation and degrees of inhibition. In a broad sense, drilling fluids can be broken into five major categories.

Freshwater Muds—Dispersed Systems

The pH value of low-pH muds may range from 7.0 to 9.5. Low-pH muds include spud muds, bentonite-treated muds, natural muds, phosphatetreated muds, organic thinned muds (e.g., red muds, lignite muds, lignosulfonate muds), and organic colloid–treated muds. In this case, the lack of salinity of the water phase and the addition of chemical dispersants dictate the inclusion of these fluids in this broad category.

Inhibited Muds—Dispersed Systems

These are water-base drilling muds that repress the hydration and dispersion of clays through the inclusion of inhibiting ions such as calcium and salt. There are essentially four types of inhibited muds: lime muds (high pH), gypsum muds (low pH), seawater muds (unsaturated saltwater muds, low pH), and saturated saltwater muds (low pH). Newer-generation inhibited-dispersed fluids offer enhanced inhibitive performance and formation stabilization; these fluids include sodium silicate muds, formate brine-based fluids, and cationic polymer fluids.

Low Solids Muds—Nondispersed Systems

These muds contain less than 3–6% solids by volume, weight less than 9.5 lb/gal, and may be fresh or saltwater based. The typical low-solid systems are selective flocculent, minimum-solids muds, beneficiated clay muds, and low-solids polymer muds. Most low-solids drilling fluids are composed of waterwith varying quantities of bentonite and a polymer. The difference among low-solid systems lies in the various actions of different polymers.

Nonaqueous Fluids

Invert Emulsions Invert emulsions are formed when one liquid is dispersed as small droplets in another liquidwith which the dispersed liquid is immiscible. Mutually immiscible fluids, such as water and oil, can be emulsified by shear and the addition of surfactants. The suspending liquid is called the continuous phase, and the droplets are called the dispersed or discontinuous phase. There are two types of emulsions used in drilling fluids:

oil-in-water emulsions that have water as the continuous phase and oil as the dispersed phase and water-in-oil emulsions that have oil as the continuous phase and water as the dispersed phase (i.e., invert emulsions). Oil-Base Muds (nonaqueous fluid [NAF]) Oil-base muds contain oil (refined from crude such as diesel or synthetic-base oil) as the continuous phase and trace amounts of water as the dispersed phase. Oil-base muds generally contain less than 5% (by volume) water (which acts as a polar activator for organophilic clay), whereas invert emulsion fluids generally have more than 5% water in mud. Oil-base muds are usually a mixture of base oil, organophilic clay, and lignite or asphalt, and the filtrate is all oil.

References:
1. Drilling Equipment and Operation.
2. drilling Operation.

Offshore Drilling Rigs

types of drilling rigs
types of drilling rigs

The sequence of operations is as follows when a land well is drilled:

–  Prepare location before rig arrives.
– Dig cellar.
– Install conductor pipe.
– Prepare support pad for rig, camp, etc
– Build roads, fencing, dig pits.
– Sometimes drill water well.
– Move rig on to location, rig up and prepare to start drilling.

Offshore Drilling Rigs:
     Two main types: floating and bottom-supported unit.

   Floating unit include: semi submersible (bottle-type, column stabilized), barge rig and drill ship.
   Bottom-supported unit include: submersible (posted barges, bottle-type submersibles, arctic submersibles),
jackups and platforms.

(1). Semi Submersible

Semi Submersible offshore drilling rig
Semi Submersible offshore drilling rig

     This floating drilling unit has columns when flooded with seawater, cause the structure submerge to a
predetermined depth.
Although it is moved by wave action, it sits low with a large part of its structure under water combined with
eight huge mooring anchors, make it a very stable installation.
This type of rig drills a hole in the seabed then it moves to the next location. With advancing technology
some semi submersibles can drill in water depths over five thousand feet.

(2). Platform
This immobile structure can be built from concrete or steel and rests on the seabed. When oil or gas is
located a platform may be constructed to drill further wells at that site and also to produce the hydrocarbon.

steel jacket platform
steel jacket platform

Steel Jacket Platform
Most common type of platform consist of the jacket, a tall vertical section made of tubular steel members.  Supported by piles driven into the seabed.
Additional sections on top of the jacket provide space for drilling rig, crew quarters, and other equipment.

   

Concrete Platform

Concrete Gravity Platform
Build from steel reinforced concrete Tall caissons, or column are the dominant feature of this platform. Sometime, special concrete cylinder are fixed at the base of the
caissons on the sea floor to store crude oil.

see our Offshore Movies section

Steel-Caisson Platform
Specifically for use in cold area – where fast-moving tidal currents carry pack of ice that can destroy steel-jacket.  The caissons are made of two layers of thick steel to
prevent ice damage.

    Compliant Platform
  Using rigid platform in water much over 1000 feet depth is not practical – very much expensive to build. In deep water, most companies use compliant platform, which
contain fewer steel parts and are lighter than rigid steel-jacket.  Guyed-tower platform and tension-leg platform.

(3). Jack up
This is a mobile drilling rig, different from the semi submersible. Instead of floating over its drilling location the Jackup has long leg structures, which it lowers to and into the seabed raising the rig out of the water.  The obvious limitation with this type of installation is the depth of water it can operate in. The maximum being five hundred feet.

    (4). Drill Ship

drill ship
drill ship

   As the name suggests this is a ship shaped drilling vessel. Unlike the semi submersible and the Jackup, it does not require tugboats to tow it to location.  Although they are not as stable as semi submersibles they also drill in very deep waters.

read more about Drilling Bits

Rotary Drilling
Rotary drilling uses a sharp, rotating drill bit to dig down through the Earth’s crust. The spinning of the drill bit allows for penetration of even the hardest rock.
The actual mechanics of modern rigs are quite complicated. In addition, technology advances so rapidly that new innovations are being introduced constantly.
A rotary drilling rig with some of its major components identified is illustrated in the next figure.

The basic rotary drilling system consists of four groups of components:
Prime movers – Hoisting equipment  –  Rotating equipment –   Circulating equipment

Prime Movers
The prime movers in a rotary drilling rig are those pieces of equipment that provide the power to the entire rig. Recently, while diesel engines still compose the majority
of power sources on rotary rigs, other types of engines are also in use. Some rotary rigs may use electricity directly from power lines. Most rotary rigs these days
require 1,000 to 3,000 horsepower, while shallow drilling rigs may require as little as 500 horsepower.
The energy from these prime movers is used to power the rotary equipment, the hoisting equipment, and the circulating equipment.

Hoisting Equipment
The hoisting equipment on a rotary rig consists of the tools used to raise and lower whatever other equipment may go into or come out of the well.
The most visible part of the hoisting equipment is the derrick, the tall tower-like structure that extends vertically from the well hole.
The hoisting system is made up of the drawworks, derrick, crown block, traveling block, hook and wire rope.
If a drill bit needs to be changed, either due to tear or a change in the subsurface rock, the whole string of pipe must be raised to the surface. The hoisting equipment is
used to raise all of this equipment to the surface so that the drill bit may be replaced.

   Whenever the drillstem is suspended by the traveling block and drill line, the entire load rests on the derrick. The standard pyramid derrick is a structure with four
supporting legs resting on a square base.
In comparison, a mast is much more slender and may be thought of as sitting on one side of the rig floor or work space. The derrick is erected on a substructure which
supports the rig floor and rotary table and provides work space for the equipment on the rig floor.

  The derrick and its substructure support the weight of the drillstem at all times, whenever it is suspended from the crown block or resting in the rotary table. The height of the derrick does not affect its load-bearing capacity, but it is a factor in the length of the sections of drill pipe that can be removed.

Hoisting Equipment
Traveling Block, Crown Block, Drill Line & Hook
Use to connect the supporting derrick with the load of drill pipe to be lowered into or withdrawn from the borehole. During drilling operations, this load usually consists of
the weight of the drill pipe, drill collars and drill bit. The drill line passes from the drawworks to the top of the derrick. From here is sheaved between the crown block and traveling block to give an eight, ten or twelve-line suspension. It is then clamped to the rig floor by the deadline anchor. Suspended from the traveling block, on standard drilling systems, is the hook which when drilling carries the swivel and kelly and when tripping it lifts the drill string.

The Drawworks
The drawworks is a mechanism commonly known as a hoist. The main purpose of the drawworks is to lift the drill string out of and to lower it back into the borehole.
The drill line is reeled (spooled) on a drum in the drawworks.  When engaged, the drum turns and either reels in the drill line to raise the traveling block, or lets out the drill line to lower it. Because the drillstem is attached to the block, it is raised or lowered. One outstanding feature of the drawworks is the brake system, which enables the driller to easily control a load of thousands of pounds of drill pipe or casing.
An integral part of the drawworks is the gear (transmission) system. This gives the driller a wide choice of speeds for hoisting the drill string.

The drawworks also has a drive sprocket that drives the rotary table by means of a heavy-duty chain. In some cases, however, the rotary table is driven by an independent engine or electric motor.  Another feature of the drawworks are the two catheads. The make-up cathead, on the drillers side, is used to spin up and tighten the drill pipe joints. The other, located opposite the driller’s position on the drawworks is the breakout cathead. It is used to loosen the drill pipe when the drill pipe is withdrawn from the borehole The rotating equipment consists of components that actually serve to rotate the drill bit.  Rotating equipment from top to bottom consists of swivel, a short piece of pipe called the kelly, rotary table/topdrive, drill string and bit. A component called the swivel, which is attached to the hoisting equipment, carries the entire weight of the drill string, but allows it to rotate freely. The drill bit is located at the bottom end of the drill string, and is responsible for actually making contact with the subsurface layers, and drilling through them. There are four main types of drill bits, each suited for particular conditions:
–  Steel Tooth Rotary Bits (most basic type).
–  Insert Bits (tungsten carbide inserts).
– Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bits (diamond inserts).
– Diamond Bits (diamonds implanted in them).

   Diamond bits are forty to fifty times harder than traditional steel bits.                                           

 References:
1. Drilling Equipment and Operation.
2. drilling Operation
3. Offshore Drilling Engineering.