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Petroleum Books Page 1

oilfieldthis section is for petroleum books such as petroleum production – petroleum fields – petroleum engineering – oil well – gas well and many other books related to oil and natural gas industry.

Surface Production Operations Part.1       Download

Surface Production Operations Part.2     Download

Surface Production Operations Part.3     Download


Standard Handbook of Petroleum & Natural Gas
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Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering
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Petroleum & Gas Field Processing
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Oil and Gas Production Handbook
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The Global Oil and Gas Strategy
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Crude Oil Production System
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The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum
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Heavy Oil Books

Electromagnetic heating for Heavy Oil
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Practical Heavy Oil Recovery
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Heavy Oil
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Heavy Oil Simulation Challenge
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Heavy Oil Recovery
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Handbook of Petroleum Product Analysis
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Production Engineering Handbook Series – L.W.Lake

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.1 – General Engineering      Download

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.2 – Drilling Engineering      Download

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.3 – Facilities and Construction Engineering     Download

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.4 – Production Operations Engineering          Download

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.5 – Reservoir Engineering and Petrophysics     Download

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.6 – Emerging and Peripheral Technologies         Download

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.7 – Indexes and Standards         Download


Oil & Gas Industry Terminology & Terms Oil & Gas Industry Dictionaries

Petroleum Glossary
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Dictionary for Oil Industry Terminology
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Glossary of Oil & Gas Terms
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All Illustrated Glossary of Selected Oil & Gas Terminology
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Glossary of terms Used in Oil Industry ConocoPhilips
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Petroleum English Dictionary
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Dictionary of Oil and Gas Production
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Crude Oil Dehydration & Desalting
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Crude Oil Stripping & Stabilization
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Gas – Oil Ratio Calculation
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Planning in Oil & Gas fields
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Production Optimization Using Nodal Analysis
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Gas Well Testing handbook
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Oil Well Testing Handbook
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Principles of Oil Well Production
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  2-Phase Separator Design Guide
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Introduction to Well Testing 
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Crude Oil Properties
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Definitions Used in Oil Industry
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Introduction to Oil Gas Production

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Sand Control Books

Sand Control   4 MB
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Introduction to Sand Control
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Sand Control   11 MB
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Sand Control PowerPoint
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Sand Control   30 MB
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Fossil Hydrocarbon Chemistry and Technology
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Decline Curve Analysis  PowerPoint
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Decline Curve Analysis Pdf
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Decline Curve Analysis for Solution-Gas Drive Reservoirs Pdf
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Manual of Petroleum Measurement  “MOPM” Series

Calculation of Petroleum measured by Turbine or Displacement Meters
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Physical Properties Data, Temperature & Pressure
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Accessory Equipment for Liquid Meters
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Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Turbine Meters
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General Considerations for Measurement by Meters
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Books about USA crude Oil & natural gas

US Crude Oil & Natural Gas Proved Reserves 2012
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US Crude Oil & Natural Gas Federal & non- Federal areas
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Well Logs

by Ahmed Imad  

Well log is a continuous record of measurement made in bore hole respond to variation in some physical properties of rocks through which the bore hole is drilled. Traditionally Logs are display on girded papers shown in figure1. Now a days the log may be taken as films, images, and in digital format.

 

HISTORY

  •   1912 Conrad Schlumberger give the idea of using electrical measurements to map subsurface rock bodies.
  •    in 1919 Conrad Schlumberger and his brother Marcel begin work on well logs.

    Logging Unit
    Logging Unit
  •    The first electrical resistivity well log was taken in France, in 1927.
  •    The instrument which was used for this purpose is called SONDE, the sound was stopped at periodic intervals in bore hole and the and resistivity was plotted on graph paper.
  •    In 1929 the electrical resistivity logs are introduce on commercial scale in Venezuela, USA and Russia
  •    For correlation and identification of Hydrocarbon bearing strata.
  •    The photographic – film recorder was developed in 1936 the curves were SN,LN AND LAT
  •    The dip meter log were developed in 1930
  • the Gamma ray and Neutron Log were began in 1941.

       LOGGING UNITS

  •     logging cable
  •     winch to raise and lower the cable in the well
  •     self-contained 120-volt AC generator
  •     set of surface control panels
  •     set of downhole tools (sondes and cartridges)
  •    digital recording system

GR (gamma ray) logs measure radioactivity to determine what types of rocks are present in the well. Because shales contain radioactive elements, they emit lots of
gamma rays. On the other hand, clean sandstones emit very few gamma rays.

SP (spontaneous potential) logs indicate the permemabilities of rocks in the well by measuring the amount of electrical current generated between the drilling fluid and the formation water that is held in pore spaces of the reservoir rock. Porous sandstones with high permeabilities tend to generate more electricity than impermeable shales. Thus, SP logs are often used to tell sandstones from shales

Resistivity logs determine what types of fluids are present in the reservoir rocks by measuring how effective these rocks are at conducting electricity. Because fresh water and oil are poor conductors of electricity they have high resistivities. By contrast, most formation waters are salty enough that they conduct electricity with ease. Thus, formation waters generally have low resistivities. There are many different types of resistivity logs, which results in a confusing array of acronyms.

BHC (borehole compensated) logs, also called sonic logs, determine porosity by measuring how fast sound waves travel through rocks in the well. In general, sound waves travel faster through high-density shales than through lower-density sandstones.

 FDC (formation density compensated) logs, also called density logs, determine porosity by measuring the density of the rocks. Because these logs overestimate the porosity of rocks that contain gas they result in “crossover” of the log curves when paired with Neutron logs (described under CNL logs below).

  CNL (compensated neutron) logs, also called neutron logs, determine porosity by assuming that the reservoir pore spaces are filled with either water or oil and then measuring the amount of hydrogen atoms (neutrons) in the pores. Because these logs underestimate the porosity of rocks that contain gas they result in “crossover” of the log curves when paired with FDC logs (described above).

NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) logs may be the well logs of the future. These logs measure the magnetic response of fluids present in the pore spaces of the reservoir rocks. In so doing, these logs measure both porosity and permeability, as well as the types of fluids present in the pore spaces.

  Dipmeter logs determine the orientations of sandstone and shale beds in the well, as well as the orientations of faults and fractures in these rocks. The original dipmeters did this by measuring the resisitivity of rocks on at least four sides of the well hole. Modern dipmeters actually make a detailed image of the rocks on all sides of the well hole. Borehole scanners do this with sonic (sound) waves, whereas FMS (formation microscanner) and FMI (formation micro-imager) logs do this by measuring the resisitisvity. These modern, essentially 3D logs are known as image logs since they provide a 360°ree; image of the bore hole that can show bedding features, faults and fractures, and even sedimentary structures, in addition to providing basic dipmeter data on the orientations of bedding.

  References:

 1-Bassiouni, Z: Theory, Measurement, and Interpretation of Well Logs, SPE Textbook Series
  2-Schlumberger, Log Interpretation Charts, Houston, TX (1995) 
  3-Western Atlas, Log Interpretation Charts, Houston, TX (1992

Completion Techniques

by Abass Radhi Abbas

1.General

Communication between the formation and the wellbore will directly affect the productivity of the well. Factors such as hydrocarbon saturation, porosity, permeability, fluid properties and geometry can be measured or inferred from the measurements but they cannot usually be controlled. By contrast, completion can be controlled and thus affect well performance. During the drilling, logging and testing phase of the well, valuable information will have been gained and the relevant completion technique chosen. There are two main categories of completions to consider with, of course, many variations;

–  Open hole Completions.
– Cased Hole Completions.

1.1.Openhole Completions

An open hole completion is when the well is drilled to the top of the target formation and the casing is cemented at this stage. Drilling is continued across the target formation and then the well is completed and produced. Open hole completions are only possible in “competent” rocks that will hold their form and not cave in or crumble – so calledOpen Hole Completion hard rock environments. This technique is generally associated with older, cheaper methods of drilling and completing wells and today would only be used in very low profile applications, if at all. Variations on the straight forward open hole completion include gravel packing with slotted liners used to contain the pack. Whereas this technique offers the least restriction to flow from formation to wellbore and as mentioned is an economical completion, it has many apparent disadvantages;

– No possibility for selectively producing or treating different zones.
–  Limited control of water or gas encroachment.

These two factors alone can play a significant part in the future management of the well, and this coupled with safety issues has lead the industry down the road of cased hole and perforated completions.

1.2.Cased Hole Completions

Cased Hole CompletionA cased hole completion is when the well has been cased and cemented across the target formation and requires shaped charge perforation to achieve communication between the formation and the wellbore. This is the most common form of completing wells today and our discussion will center around this technique.

  1. Completion Types

Completions can be broken down into two main categories;

–  Natural (perforated).

– Stimulated.

In all three the objective is to maximize production through enhancement of some aspect of the near-wellbore reservoir performance.  Of particular importance is the change in flow geometry near the wellbore caused by wellbore damage (from drilling and filtrate invasion), perforations (debris), flow convergence due to partial penetration and deviation. This damage is known as skin (S) and will be discussed in more detail in section 5, but for the time being can be considered as an induced pressure drop across the completion which effects productivity.

Completion

Completion

Pressure Distribution
Pressure Distribution in a Reservoir with Skin

The aim of the completion design engineer and reservoir engineer is to reduce the influence of skin as much as possible.

  1. 1.Natural Completions (perforated)

The natural completion is usually chosen for sandstone reservoirs with permeabilities above 10 md and porosities above 9 p.u. These reservoirs typically have small damaged zones and limited skin, good transmissibility and stable rock mechanics. They generally do not require stimulation or sand control during primary completion. The objectives of the perforation in this case would be depth of penetration and effective shot density, the perforation diameter is generally unimportant if it is larger than 0.25” (0.5 cm). The deepest penetration with the greatest phase distribution is desirable for production enhancement.

2..2        Stimulated Completions

These fall into two broad categories;

–  Hydraulic Fracturing.

–   Acidizing.

Occasionally the two are combined in an “acid frac” job.

2.2.1     Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing is performed to enhance the effective wellbore radius rw and is usually employed in reservoirs

with small permeabilities (k < 1 md). This is accomplished by injecting fluids and propant at high pressure, in order to create a bi-wing, symmetrical fracture or crack in the reservoir. Hydraulic fracturing is generally a five-step process;

  • Pre-fracturing treatment.
  • Fracture initiation and breakdown.
  • Fracture extension.
  • Proppant injection.
  • Cleanout and production.

    Hydraulic Fracturing
    Hydraulic Fracturing Process
  • 2.2.2     AcidizingAcidizing is a stimulation process used to repair formation damage caused by the drilling or perforating operation. This type of damage is usually associated with plugging of the pore throats around the wellbore. Acidizing removes this damage from the matrix rock by injecting acid into the naturally porous rock at sub-fracturing rates, allowing the acid to dissolve the plugs.
  • Acid frac jobs are used to etch the surface of the hydraulically induced fracture. After the fracture closes, the etched surface cannot form a closed seal. Acid frac jobs are operationally less complicated because no proppant is used thus eliminating the potential for premature frac termination that may be caused by screenout or problems of proppant flowback. The principle disadvantage of this technique is the expense of the acid fluids and non-uniform leak-off resulting in “wormholes.” Acid frac jobs are usually performed on carbonate reservoirs