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Petroleum Books Page 1

oilfieldthis section is for petroleum books such as petroleum production – petroleum fields – petroleum engineering – oil well – gas well and many other books related to oil and natural gas industry.

Surface Production Operations Part.1       Download

Surface Production Operations Part.2     Download

 


Standard Handbook of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering Part.1
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Standard Handbook of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering Part.2
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Petroleum Engineering Handbook PEH Series 

Petroleum Engineering Handbook Vol.1  – General Engineering   Download

Petroleum Engineering Handbook Vol.2  – Drilling Engineering    Download

Petroleum Engineering Handbook Vol.3  – Facility and Construction Engineering    Download

Petroleum Engineering Handbook Vol.4  – Production Operation Engineering     Download

Petroleum Engineering Handbook Vol.5  – Reservoir Engineering and Petrophysics     Download

Petroleum Engineering Handbook Vol.6  – Emerging and Peripheral Technologies  Download

Petroleum Engineering Handbook Vol.7  – Indexes and Standards     Download


Petroleum & Gas Field Processing
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Oil and Gas Production Handbook
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Petroleum Production System
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The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum
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Heavy Oil Books

Heavy Oil , Extra Heavy Oil and Bitumen
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Heavy Oil Simulation Challenge
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Heavy Oil
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Heavy Oil Wellbore Designs from Schlumberger
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performance analysis of recovery processes for extra heavy oil
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Handbook of Petroleum Product Analysis
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Oil & Gas Industry Terminology & Terms Oil & Gas Industry Dictionaries

Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary
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Glossary of Oil and Gas Terms
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Definitions of Petroleum Industry
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Dictionary Of Oil Industry Terminology
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Glossary of Terms Used in Petroleum Reserves/Resources Definitions
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Glossary of terms Used in Oil Industry ConocoPhilips
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Petroleum English – Arabic Dictionary
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Oil and Gas Dictionary
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Crude Oil Stripping & Stabilization
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Stock Tank Gas – Oil Ratio
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Planning in Oil & Gas fields
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Production Optimization Using Nodal Analysis
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Well Testing Books

Gas Well Testing handbook
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Oil Well Testing Handbook
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Well Testing 
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Well Testing  80 MB
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Well Testing and Well Performance
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Introduction to Well Testing
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Well testing Note
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Well Testing Analysis
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Well testing Equipment
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Physical Principles of Oil Well Production
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  2-Phase Separator Design Guide
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read also 3-Phase Oil-Gas-Water Separators


Crude Oil Properties
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Introduction to Oil Gas Production

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Sand Control Books

Sand Control   4 MB
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Sand Control Overview
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Sand Control Managment
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Sand Control PowerPoint
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Decline Curve Analysis  PowerPoint
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Decline Curve Analysis Pdf
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Books about USA crude Oil & natural gas

U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, 2013
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U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves 2015
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Crude Oil Chemistry Download


Halliburton Manuals 230 MB
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Oilwell Drilling Course2

Drillingthe biggest collection of FREE movies about Oil Well Drilling , it contains movies about:
well casing – cementing & cement additives – Drilling mud systems & additives – Blow Out Preventers BOP – Drilling bits – well logging – directional drilling – drilling rig – Permeability  & Porosity.

Permeability
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Trapping Mechanism
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Porosity
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 Water Flooding
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 Water Flooding
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 Enhanced Oil Recovery with Permanent CO2 Storage
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 UnderGround Injection Wells
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 Well Cementing
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 Oil Drilling Machine
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  Petroleum Engineers
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 Oil Rig Coiled Tubing Animation
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Cementing
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 Drilling Bits
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  Fishing Operations
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 Typical Downhole Drilling
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  3D Oil Drilling
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  Directional Drilling Rig
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  Basics of Well Completion
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   Oil & Gas Wells from Start to End
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  BOPs in Subsea platforms
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  Directional Drilling Rig
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  Jackup Drilling Rig – How Does it Work?
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  Connection on a Drilling Rig
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  Drilling Fluids Monitoring – Well Control Events
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  Drilling Techniques
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  Drilling Fluids Monitoring – Operational Efficiency
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  Drilling Fluid Overview elementary
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  Introduction to Drilling Fluids Monitoring
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   Casing
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  Rig Types and Basic Drill String Components
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  What are Drill Bits?
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  Well Logging in Offshore Drilling
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  How Drilling Mud Works in Offshore Rig?
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  Well Completion – Cased and Perforated
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  Well Completion – Perforation
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 Well Logging – SP and GR Logs
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 Well Test – DST Direct Information
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 Well Test – DST Operation P vs T
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 Well test – Qualitative DST Chart-1
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 How to care & maintain of Mud Pump
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 How does water base mud works in Offshore Rig
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 CCS (Continuous Circulation Drilling System)
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 How does Mud Engineer work on Offshore Rig
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 Drilling Fluid Circulation System ( Mud )
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 Introduction to UnderBalanced and OverBalanced Drilling
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 Managed Pressure Drilling MPD
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 Drilling Fluids Overview
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  Openhole Fishing
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Openhole Fracture Completion System

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Gas Well Blowout
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3D Animation of Drilling Rig
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Well Logs

by Ahmed Imad  

Well log is a continuous record of measurement made in bore hole respond to variation in some physical properties of rocks through which the bore hole is drilled. Traditionally Logs are display on girded papers shown in figure1. Now a days the log may be taken as films, images, and in digital format.

 

HISTORY

  •   1912 Conrad Schlumberger give the idea of using electrical measurements to map subsurface rock bodies.
  •    in 1919 Conrad Schlumberger and his brother Marcel begin work on well logs.

    Logging Unit
    Logging Unit
  •    The first electrical resistivity well log was taken in France, in 1927.
  •    The instrument which was used for this purpose is called SONDE, the sound was stopped at periodic intervals in bore hole and the and resistivity was plotted on graph paper.
  •    In 1929 the electrical resistivity logs are introduce on commercial scale in Venezuela, USA and Russia
  •    For correlation and identification of Hydrocarbon bearing strata.
  •    The photographic – film recorder was developed in 1936 the curves were SN,LN AND LAT
  •    The dip meter log were developed in 1930
  • the Gamma ray and Neutron Log were began in 1941.

       LOGGING UNITS

  •     logging cable
  •     winch to raise and lower the cable in the well
  •     self-contained 120-volt AC generator
  •     set of surface control panels
  •     set of downhole tools (sondes and cartridges)
  •    digital recording system

GR (gamma ray) logs measure radioactivity to determine what types of rocks are present in the well. Because shales contain radioactive elements, they emit lots of
gamma rays. On the other hand, clean sandstones emit very few gamma rays.

SP (spontaneous potential) logs indicate the permemabilities of rocks in the well by measuring the amount of electrical current generated between the drilling fluid and the formation water that is held in pore spaces of the reservoir rock. Porous sandstones with high permeabilities tend to generate more electricity than impermeable shales. Thus, SP logs are often used to tell sandstones from shales

Resistivity logs determine what types of fluids are present in the reservoir rocks by measuring how effective these rocks are at conducting electricity. Because fresh water and oil are poor conductors of electricity they have high resistivities. By contrast, most formation waters are salty enough that they conduct electricity with ease. Thus, formation waters generally have low resistivities. There are many different types of resistivity logs, which results in a confusing array of acronyms.

BHC (borehole compensated) logs, also called sonic logs, determine porosity by measuring how fast sound waves travel through rocks in the well. In general, sound waves travel faster through high-density shales than through lower-density sandstones.

 FDC (formation density compensated) logs, also called density logs, determine porosity by measuring the density of the rocks. Because these logs overestimate the porosity of rocks that contain gas they result in “crossover” of the log curves when paired with Neutron logs (described under CNL logs below).

  CNL (compensated neutron) logs, also called neutron logs, determine porosity by assuming that the reservoir pore spaces are filled with either water or oil and then measuring the amount of hydrogen atoms (neutrons) in the pores. Because these logs underestimate the porosity of rocks that contain gas they result in “crossover” of the log curves when paired with FDC logs (described above).

NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) logs may be the well logs of the future. These logs measure the magnetic response of fluids present in the pore spaces of the reservoir rocks. In so doing, these logs measure both porosity and permeability, as well as the types of fluids present in the pore spaces.

  Dipmeter logs determine the orientations of sandstone and shale beds in the well, as well as the orientations of faults and fractures in these rocks. The original dipmeters did this by measuring the resisitivity of rocks on at least four sides of the well hole. Modern dipmeters actually make a detailed image of the rocks on all sides of the well hole. Borehole scanners do this with sonic (sound) waves, whereas FMS (formation microscanner) and FMI (formation micro-imager) logs do this by measuring the resisitisvity. These modern, essentially 3D logs are known as image logs since they provide a 360°ree; image of the bore hole that can show bedding features, faults and fractures, and even sedimentary structures, in addition to providing basic dipmeter data on the orientations of bedding.

  References:

 1-Bassiouni, Z: Theory, Measurement, and Interpretation of Well Logs, SPE Textbook Series
  2-Schlumberger, Log Interpretation Charts, Houston, TX (1995) 
  3-Western Atlas, Log Interpretation Charts, Houston, TX (1992

Completion Techniques

 

 

by Abass Radhi Abbas

1.General

Communication between the formation and the wellbore will directly affect the productivity of the well. Factors such as hydrocarbon saturation, porosity, permeability, fluid properties and geometry can be measured or inferred from the measurements but they cannot usually be controlled. By contrast, completion can be controlled and thus affect well performance. During the drilling, logging and testing phase of the well, valuable information will have been gained and the relevant completion technique chosen. There are two main categories of completions to consider with, of course, many variations;

–  Open hole Completions.
– Cased Hole Completions.

1.1.Openhole Completions

An open hole completion is when the well is drilled to the top of the target formation and the casing is cemented at this stage. Drilling is continued across the target formation and then the well is completed and produced. Open hole completions are only possible in “competent” rocks that will hold their form and not cave in or crumble – so calledOpen Hole Completion hard rock environments. This technique is generally associated with older, cheaper methods of drilling and completing wells and today would only be used in very low profile applications, if at all. Variations on the straight forward open hole completion include gravel packing with slotted liners used to contain the pack. Whereas this technique offers the least restriction to flow from formation to wellbore and as mentioned is an economical completion, it has many apparent disadvantages;

– No possibility for selectively producing or treating different zones.
–  Limited control of water or gas encroachment.

These two factors alone can play a significant part in the future management of the well, and this coupled with safety issues has lead the industry down the road of cased hole and perforated completions.

1.2.Cased Hole Completions

Cased Hole CompletionA cased hole completion is when the well has been cased and cemented across the target formation and requires shaped charge perforation to achieve communication between the formation and the wellbore. This is the most common form of completing wells today and our discussion will center around this technique.

  1. Completion Types

Completions can be broken down into two main categories;

–  Natural (perforated).

– Stimulated.

In all three the objective is to maximize production through enhancement of some aspect of the near-wellbore reservoir performance.  Of particular importance is the change in flow geometry near the wellbore caused by wellbore damage (from drilling and filtrate invasion), perforations (debris), flow convergence due to partial penetration and deviation. This damage is known as skin (S) and will be discussed in more detail in section 5, but for the time being can be considered as an induced pressure drop across the completion which effects productivity.

Completion

Completion

Pressure Distribution
Pressure Distribution in a Reservoir with Skin

The aim of the completion design engineer and reservoir engineer is to reduce the influence of skin as much as possible.

  1. 1.Natural Completions (perforated)

The natural completion is usually chosen for sandstone reservoirs with permeabilities above 10 md and porosities above 9 p.u. These reservoirs typically have small damaged zones and limited skin, good transmissibility and stable rock mechanics. They generally do not require stimulation or sand control during primary completion. The objectives of the perforation in this case would be depth of penetration and effective shot density, the perforation diameter is generally unimportant if it is larger than 0.25” (0.5 cm). The deepest penetration with the greatest phase distribution is desirable for production enhancement.

2..2        Stimulated Completions

These fall into two broad categories;

–  Hydraulic Fracturing.

–   Acidizing.

Occasionally the two are combined in an “acid frac” job.

2.2.1     Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing is performed to enhance the effective wellbore radius rw and is usually employed in reservoirs

with small permeabilities (k < 1 md). This is accomplished by injecting fluids and propant at high pressure, in order to create a bi-wing, symmetrical fracture or crack in the reservoir. Hydraulic fracturing is generally a five-step process;

  • Pre-fracturing treatment.
  • Fracture initiation and breakdown.
  • Fracture extension.
  • Proppant injection.
  • Cleanout and production.

    Hydraulic Fracturing
    Hydraulic Fracturing Process
  • 2.2.2     AcidizingAcidizing is a stimulation process used to repair formation damage caused by the drilling or perforating operation. This type of damage is usually associated with plugging of the pore throats around the wellbore. Acidizing removes this damage from the matrix rock by injecting acid into the naturally porous rock at sub-fracturing rates, allowing the acid to dissolve the plugs.
  • Acid frac jobs are used to etch the surface of the hydraulically induced fracture. After the fracture closes, the etched surface cannot form a closed seal. Acid frac jobs are operationally less complicated because no proppant is used thus eliminating the potential for premature frac termination that may be caused by screenout or problems of proppant flowback. The principle disadvantage of this technique is the expense of the acid fluids and non-uniform leak-off resulting in “wormholes.” Acid frac jobs are usually performed on carbonate reservoirs