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Crude Oil Trading

Oil market overview
oil marketThis article gives an overview of the oil market and its dynamics. Furthermore, analyzes the types of oils, their characteristics and the factors that can influence the supply and demand and thus the price of the oil in the market.

The world crude oil market:
The oil industry is a global enterprise that employs millions of workers around the world and generates hundreds of millions of dollars. The oil sector, thus, is considered to be the largest in the world in terms of dollar value. In regions which house the major National Oil Companies, these corporations contribute significantly to the national GDP. The main products of the oil industry are constituted by fuel oil and gasoline (petroleum). Petroleum is one of the primary materials for the chemical industry: it is used for pharmaceutical products, plastics, solvents and fertilizers. Oil plays a key role in industrial production and therefore is a resource of critical importance for all the countries in the world. During the last decade, a growing negative sentiment against the oil industry has been emerging. Recent environmental disasters such as the BP oil spill (also referred to as the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Of Mexico Oil Spill) has given a negative spotlight on the whole oil industry. Moreover, the companies working in the oil and gas sector are being threatened by the increasing importance and attention given to renewable and alternative energies. Due to these phenomena, the government is putting pressure on these companies through increased legislations. Despite the increasing negative sentiment, the oil and gas industry is still extremely successful, and is experiencing a strong and rapid growth. It is estimated that the worldwide consumption of oil is 30 billion barrels per year, and this amount is mostly utilized by the developed countries. Moreover, oil also represents the major source of energy consumed around the globe and accounts for 32% in Europe, 35% in Asia, 40% in North America, 42% in Africa, and 51% in Middle East.

read also Crude Oil Price

Major oil futures exchanges Oil is one of the main commodities traded around the world. This section is focused on three among the major exchanges in which a large amount of oil futures contracts are traded.

CME:
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) was founded in 1895 in Chicago, Illinois, USA, and is one of the most important markets for derivate worldwide. Despite its importance, the CME is not the first American futures market as the Chicago Board of Trade ( CBOT ) was founded in 1848. In 2007 the CBOT was incorporated within the CME Group. In August 2008, the acquisition of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) was completed. For a long time the only contracts traded on the CME had underlying assets as agricultural products such as grain, flour bacon etc. We have to wait until 1972 to witness the debut of the first “financial futures”. In that year, futures on seven currencies (British pound, Canadian dollar, German mark, French franc, Japanese yen, Mexican peso , Swiss franc) began to be traded. The development of financial markets in the following years led to an exponential growth of the tools available to operators. Between 1975 and 1977, the CBOT launched the first futures on interest rates. Particularly important was the debut of the contract on T- Bonds, the title of the US government, which quickly became the most traded futures in the world. The period between ’81 – ’82 was also crucial because the CME introduced the contract on Eurodollar deposits and then the first futures on a stock index , the S&P 500. In 1997, the CME opened its doors to private traders thanks to the invention of E-mini S&P 500 futures, contracts of smaller size than the standard, negotiated with margins also accessible to noninstitutional traders. Currently, the range of products traded at the CME Group ranges from futures and options on indices, currencies, interest rate, commodities and derivatives up to the economic indicators (e.g. inflation) and the evolvement of weather conditions. Exchanges at the CME take place in two ways. One being the classic system of “shouting”, in which specialized operators are physically present in the room for negotiation and exchange contracts through a set of codified hand gestures (impossible to do so by voice as this would be too chaotic).

This process was supplemented in 1992 with an online platform that allows traders to operate remotely via dedicated terminals .

ICE 
The Intercontinental Exchange Group (ICE), is a complex network composed of clearing houses and exchanges created for financial and commodity markets. The group created in May 2000 is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia and the ICE actually owns 23 exchanges and marketplaces all around the globe. This network, different from other marketplaces, operates completely as an electronic exchange, which connects firms and individuals looking to trade oil, electric-power, natural gas and general commodity derivatives. Moreover, the ICE also facilitates the exchange of emission (cap-and-trade) and OTC energy exchanges. In 2001 ICE acquired the International Petroleum Exchange (IPE), which is now called ICE Futures Europe. Furthermore, in 2007, the ICE also acquired the New York Board of Trade, that is now known as ICE Futures US.

 NYMEX
The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is arguably the largest market for the exchange of futures, as well as a major headquarters for the commercialization of energy and precious metals. Among other things, the exchange is also characterized by a major characteristic: the NYMEX stands out for its 135 years history of integrity and transparency in pricing. The transactions that take place here limit the risk of default by the counterparty. Trading relates to energy, metals, futures on environmental goods and some options relating to the system of e-commerce. The NYMEX refers to markets for the exchange of materials such as crude oil, diesel fuel, gasoline, natural gas, electricity, propane, uranium and other naturally occurring assets such as gold, silver, aluminum, platinum. Many varieties of options are available, including, options on the price differential between crude oil and its derived products (or so-called “crack spreads”), monthly futures contracts (better known in the U.S. as “calendar spreads”) and the European and Asian options . In essence the NYMEX offers products that ultimately aim to minimize the risk of default by the counterparty, as mentioned before . Usually, investors who choose to entrust their portfolio choices on the New York Mercantile Exchange are attracted by features such as excellent liquidity, the offering of stocks and bonds. The prices relative to prices in this market are often used as a reference by buyers from sellers who operate in the markets that exchange materials such as energy and precious metals.

Factors influencing the market
The worldwide oil market is strongly affected by several factors, which can have a dramatic effect on the spot price. This section presents ten main variables that can influence the market.

Read Also Crude Oil Contracts

OPEC
 The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries is a consortium composed of 13 nations: Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela. This organization is the largest single entity that can affect, through its choices, the world’s oil supplies. OPEC is accountable for more than 40% of the world’s production of oil. OPEC decides the policy of the member countries in order to meet the global oil consumption. This entity can strongly affect the price of the crude oil, just by changing the production levels among its members.

Supply and Demand
The amount of oil present in the inventories balances the supply and demand. When the production exceeds the amount of the demand, the surplus can be stored. In the opposite way, if the consumption exceeds the demand, inventories can be exploited in order to cover the incremental demand: the strong relationship between oil inventories and oil prices makes corrections in each direction possible. Non-OPEC suppliers produce almost 60% of the global oil and thus outpace the OPEC countries in terms of production by 50%. Despite this difference in production levels the non-OPEC countries do not have sufficient reserves to control the price, and therefore they have only the ability to respond to market fluctuations.

Legislation
As already mentioned during the oil market overview, a vast part of the global oil reserves and production are controlled by companies strongly linked to the government. This means the world oil market is heavily affected by political decisions and so this market is far to be a competitive place. Moreover the variation in energy policy and taxation in oil-rich countries can also influence the world price of oil.

Political unrest
This is another factor that has always strongly affected the price of oil: if an oil-producing nation becomes politically unstable (e.g. Iranian Revolution in 1979), supplier markets react by increasing the prices of oil, so that the remaining supplies are still available to the highest bidder. The shortage in supply does not need be become real, only the perception of a possible decrease in production can drive the price up.

Production costs
Physical factors determine most of the costs of the oil production: from the location of reserves to the characteristics and the property of the oil found, and ultimately to the extraction procedures. Oil is a nonrenewable natural resource, therefore substantial investments are required for the discovery of new reserves and their development.

 Financial markets
Oil brokers work as an intermediary to match buyers with sellers of crude oil, one of the major contracts traded are the futures contracts. Futures give the possibility to buyers and sellers to hedge their position against possible oil price fluctuations that could affect their profitability. Oil producers sell oil futures to lock their price for a determined amount of time while the counterpart purchases oil futures in order to receive a future delivery of oil at a predetermined price.

Weather
Being a commodity, the seasonal cycles in weather influences the demand of oil. During the winter, the amount of heating oil consumed increases, while in the summer people use a larger amount of gasoline to travel. Although markets expect those increased demand periods, the oil prices still raise and level out with the changes of the season every year. Beside the seasonality effect, extreme weather conditions can physically affect the production of oil by damaging infrastructures, interrupting supply, and therefore inducing pricing spikes.

Speculators
Speculators can influence the cost of crude oil by buying and selling futures contracts on the open market. This phenomena has a huge impact on the price due to particular requirements applied to these contracts. The speculator is not required to have the total sum required for the transaction, but just a small fraction of it (margin). These low margins requirements create a leverage effect. In recent years, it was believed that speculators were driving up the price of oil to the peak, in 2008, at more than $140/barrel. By the end of 2009, prices fell to $30/barrel as there was not a real demand supporting the inflated price level.

Exchange value of the dollar
Oil is bought and sold internationally using the US dollar currency. A depreciation of the dollar usually tends to raise the oil demand and increase the price of the oil. On the other hand, the appreciation of the dollar decreases the real income in consumer countries, therefore reducing the demand and the price of oil.

Non-OECD demand
While oil consumption in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development countries has declined during the last 10 years, the consumption in countries that are not part of the OECD has increased more than 40% during the same period. In particular the countries that registered the highest growth of consumption were China, India and Saudi Arabia.

References:
1. Technical analysis trading strategy – Masaryk University Faculty of Economics and Administration.
2. Oil Market Basics – Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration.

Wells – Chemicals

Chemicals Used in Fracturing

The identities of chemicals incorporated in fracturing fluids were probably the first thing sensationalized about fracturing. The movie “Gasland” created quite a stir with the statement that a “cocktail” of several hundred toxic chemicals were “potentially” used in fracturing. The grain of truth was that there are many chemicals in additives sold for incorporation in fracturing; however; the fact is that most fracs use only a dozen or so major chemicals, some of which are food-grade additives and many are in parts per million concentration. About half of fracturing jobs are “slick water” fracturing fluid that often use low concentrations of two to five chemicals. Many claims of chemical usage also include trace amounts of chemicals at the edge of detection and most well below the EPA’s strictest limits. Analysis of drinking water, for comparison, has shown arsenic, lead, chromium, solvents, gasoline, pesticides, prescription drugs, and a myriad of household products as the most common contaminants – none from fracturing. The upside to this commentary is that public concerns have moved chemical manufacturers to make and operators to use safer chemicals and less overall chemicals. Many companies have moved toward biocides with less residual activity, mechanical biocides such as ultraviolet light and the use of chemicals on the US EPA’s Safer Choice chemicals (formerly Designed For Environment or DfE) or UK North Sea’s OCNS Hazard rating of Gold Band (lowest possible hazard quotient). These listed materials meet requirements of rapid biodegradation and minimum harm to environments.

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Friction reducer, the largest volume chemical in slick water fracs, is polyacrylate, a polymer whose main use is in baby diaper absorbent and as a drinking water purifier that adsorbs heavy metals. A cross section of chemicals used in fracturing, the volumes used and some alternate uses helps explain oil field fracturing chemical usage. Chemicals such as diesel, benzene and proven carcinogens, mutagens and endocrine disruptors are not used in modern safe fracturing fluids. The CAS number identifies exact identity (no “trade secret” identities).

drilling chemicals

One of the most impactful problems from fracturing in Pennsylvania was the use of local water treating plants to treat water produced from oil and gas wells before disposal into Pennsylvania rivers. The practice was evidently instituted in Pennsylvania decades prior to the shale drilling boom in the Marcellus when volumes of water flowed from conventional wells was very small and natural salt contents were low. Dilution of locally severe acid mine drainage in some creeks by the produced water was expected to be beneficial; however; large volumes of produced water from fracturing in the shales with high salinity and ions such as bromine and barium proved too problematic for such a disposal method. This practice, although allowed by law in Pennsylvania until about 2010, has been forbidden by law in nearly all western states since the 1950’s.

read also Drilling Rotating Equipment

Chemicals Used in Production Operations

Producing oil and gas with the associated salt water from hydrocarbon bearing formations creates corrosion potential, flow restriction deposits such as mineral scales of calcium or barium and challenges in separating oil from water. Corrosion remains one of the biggest deterioration problems in the oil industry (a large problem in other industries as well). Scales may precipitate in tubulars until they restrict flow. Paraffins (wax) are longer carbon chain components of oil and can deposit anywhere in the well as temperatures cool and pressure declines. Mixing of salt water, oil, gas and a small amount of solids such as sand, rust or even ice can produce emulsions, froths and foams that must be separated before the oil and gas can be sold and the salt water can be recycled or properly re-injected into the hydrocarbon producing formation. A wide variety of specialty chemicals, often at part per million (ppm) concentration, can be used, but only a handful of products are typically selected after laboratory testing. Using minimum amounts of the best additives reduces cost and risk in transport or storage.

drilling chemicals

Any chemical usage may be frightening to some people and there are definitely chemicals that should not be used, particularly where contamination or airborne emissions are possible. By using chemicals proven safe for specific uses, all elements of potential pollution are reduced. Even when the chemicals will never be disposed of in the environment outside of oilfield containment, the safe chemical route minimizes impact in the event of a spill or leak.
Note: BTX (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene) content in many additives is steadily declining but some operators have not phased the products out completely. Many companies are reviewing product offerings for the BTX or other troublesome materials and choosing alternatives. Although BTX is often reported in wells as if they were part of a chemical additive, the most likely source is in the produced oil. BTX and diesel range oil components are a natural part of many produced oils.

Geologic Classification of Petroleum Reservoirs

 

Petroleum reservoirs exist in many different sizes and shapes of geologic structures. It is usually convenient to classify the reservoirs according to the conditions of their formation as follows:

A reservoir formed by folding of rock layers.
Figure 1

1. Dome-Shaped and Anticline Reservoirs:

These reservoirs are formed by the folding of the rock layers as shown in Figure 1. The dome is circular in outline, and the anticline is long and narrow. Oil and/or gas moved or migrated upward through the porous strata where it was trapped by the sealing cap rock and the shape of the structure.

 

2. Faulted Reservoirs:

A cross section of a faulted reservoir.
Figure 2

These reservoirs are formed by shearing and offsetting of the strata (faulting), as shown in Figure 2. The movement of the nonporous rock opposite the porous formation containing the oil/gas creates the sealing. The tilt of the petroleum-bearing rock and the faulting trap the oil/gas in the reservoir.

 

 

3. Salt-Dome Reservoirs:

Section in a salt-dome structure
figure 3

This type of reservoir structure, which
takes the shape of a dome, was formed due to the upward
movement of large, impermeable salt dome that deformed and
lifted the overlying layers of rock. As shown in Figure 3,
petroleum is trapped between the cap rock and an underlying
impermeable rock layer, or between two impermeable layers of
rock and the salt dome.

 

 

4. Unconformities:

A reservoir formed by unconformity.
figure 4

This type of reservoir structure, shown in Figure 4, was formed as a result of an unconformity where the
impermeable cap rock was laid down across the cutoff surfaces of the lower beds.

 

 

 

5. Lense-Type Reservoirs:

In this type of reservoir, the petroleum bearing porous formation is sealed by the surrounding, nonporous formation. Irregular deposition of sediments and shale at the time the formation was laid down is the probable cause for this abrupt change in formation porosity.

6. Combination Reservoirs:

In this case, combinations of folding, faulting, abrupt changes in porosity, or other conditions that create the trap, from this common type of reservoir.

Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
At the time oil was forming and accumulating in the reservoir, the pressure energy of the associated gas and water was also stored. When a well is drilled through the reservoir and the pressure in the well is made to be lower than the pressure in the oil formation, it is that energy of the gas, or the water, or both that would displace the oil from the formation into the well and lift it up to the surface. Therefore, another way of classifying petroleum reservoirs,
which is of interest to reservoir and production engineers, is to characterize the reservoir according to the production (drive) mechanism responsible for displacing the oil from the formation into the wellbore and up to the surface. There are three main drive mechanisms:

I. Solution-Gas-Drive Reservoirs:
Depending on the reservoir pressure and temperature, the oil in the reservoir would have varying amounts of gas dissolved within the oil (solution gas).
Solution gas would evolve out of the oil only if the pressure is lowered below a certain value, known as the bubble point pressure, which is a property of the oil. When a well is drilled through the reservoir and the pressure conditions are controlled to create a pressure that is lower than the bubble point pressure, the liberated gas expands and drives the oil out of the formation and assists in lifting it to the surface.
Reservoirs with the energy of the escaping and expanding dissolved gas as the only source of energy are called solution-gas-drive reservoirs.
This drive mechanism is the least effective of all drive mechanisms; it generally yields recoveries between 15% and
25% of the oil in the reservoir.

II. Gas-Cap-Drive Reservoirs:
Many reservoirs have free gas existing as a gas cap above the oil. The formation of this gas cap was due to the presence of a larger amount of gas than could be dissolved in the oil at the pressure and temperature of the reservoir. The excess gas is segregated by gravity to occupy the top portion of the reservoir.
In such a reservoirs, the oil is produced by the expansion of the gas in the gas cap, which pushes the oil downward and fills the pore spaces formerly occupied by the produced oil. In most cases, however, solution gas is also
contributing to the drive of the oil out of the formation.
Under favorable conditions, some of the solution gas may move upward into the gas cap and, thus, enlarge the gas cap and conserves its energy. Reservoirs produced by the expansion of the gas cap are known as Gas-cap-drive
reservoirs. This drive is more efficient than the solution-gas drive and could yield recoveries between 25% and 50% of the original oil in the reservoir.

III. Water-Drive Reservoirs:
Many other reservoirs exist as huge, continuous, porous formations with the oil/gas occupying only a small portion of the formation. In such cases, the vast formation below the oil/gas is saturated with salt water at very high pressure. When oil/gas is produced, by lowering the pressure in the well opposite the petroleum formation, the salt
water expands and moves upward, pushing the oil/gas out of the formation and occupying the pore spaces vacated by the produced oil/gas. The movement of the water to displace the oil/gas retards the decline in oil, or gas pressure, and conserves the expansive energy of the hydrocarbons.
Reservoirs produced by the expansion and movement of the salt water below the oil/gas are known as water-drive
reservoirs. This is the most efficient drive mechanism; it could yield recoveries up to 50% of the original oil.

References:
Petroleum and Natural Gas Field Processing
 -H. K. Abdel-Aal and Mohamed Aggour

what is Naphtha

what is Naphtha

Naphtha is a liquid petroleum product that boils from about 30°C (86°F) to approximately 200°C (392°F), although there are different grades of naphtha within this extensive boiling range that have different boiling ranges .

The term petroleum solvent is often used synonymously with naphtha. On a chemical basis, naphtha is difficult to define precisely because it can contain varying amounts of its constituents (paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics,
and olefins) in different proportions, in addition to the potential isomers of the paraffins that exist in the naphtha boiling range. Naphtha is also represented as having a boiling range and carbon number similar to those of gasoline a precursor to gasoline.

The so-called petroleum ether solvents are specific-boiling-range naphtha as is ligroin. Thus the term petroleum solvent describes special liquid hydrocarbon fractions obtained from naphtha and used in industrial processes and formulations.These fractions are also referred to as industrial naphtha. Other solvents include white spirit,
which is subdivided into industrial spirit [distilling between 30°C and 200°C (86°F–392°F)] and white spirit [light oil with a distillation range of 135°C– 200°C (275°F–392°F)]. The special value of naphtha as a solvent lies in its
stability and purity.

Naphtha Production and Properties:

Naphtha is produced by any one of several methods, which include (1) fractionation of straight-run, cracked, and reforming distillates or even fractionation of crude petroleum; (2) solvent extraction; (3) hydrogenation of cracked distillates; (4) polymerization of unsaturated compounds (olefins); and (5) alkylation processes. In fact, naphtha may be a combination of product streams from more than one of these processes.
The more common method of naphtha preparation is distillation. Depending on the design of the distillation unit, either one or two naphtha steams may be produced: (1) a single naphtha with an end point of about 205∞C (400∞F) and similar to straight-run gasoline or (2) this same fraction divided into a light naphtha and a heavy naphtha.The end point of the light naphtha is varied to suit the subsequent subdivision of the naphtha into narrower boiling fractions and may be of the order of 120∞C (250∞F).
Sulfur compounds are most commonly removed or converted to a harmless form by chemical treatment with lye, Doctor solution, copper chloride or similar treating agents Hydrorefining processes (Speight, 1999) are also often used in place of chemical treatment.When used as a solvent, naphtha is selected for low sulfur content, and the usual treatment processes remove only sulfur compounds. Naphtha with a small aromatic content has a slight odor, but the aromatics increase the solvent power of the naphtha and there is no need to remove aromatics unless odor-free
naphtha is specified.
The variety of applications emphasizes the versatility of naphtha. For example, naphtha is used by paint, printing ink and polish manufacturers and in the rubber and adhesive industries as well as in the preparation of edible oils, perfumes, glues, and fats. Further uses are found in the drycleaning, leather, and fur industries and also in the pesticide field. The characteristics that determine the suitability of naphtha for a particular use are volatility, solvent properties (dissolving power), purity, and odor (generally, the lack thereof).
To meet the demands of a variety of uses, certain basic naphtha grades are produced that are identified by boiling range.The complete range of naphtha solvents may be divided, for convenience, into four general categories:
1. Special boiling point spirits having overall distillation range within the limits of 30–165°C (86–329°F);
2. Pure aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, xylenes, or mixtures (BTX) thereof;
3. White spirit, also known as mineral spirit and naphtha, usually boiling within 150–210°C (302–410°F);
4. High-boiling petroleum fractions boiling within the limits of 160– 325°C (320–617°F).
Because the end use dictates the required composition of naphtha, most grades are available in both high- and low-solvency categories and the various text methods can have major significance in some applications and lesser significance in others. Hence the application and significance of tests must be considered in the light of the proposed end use.
Odor is particularly important because, unlike most other petroleum liquids, many of the manufactured products containing naphtha are used in confined spaces, in factory workshops, and in the home.

Petroleum Reservoirs Books 2

Applied Reservoir Engineering, Smith, Part.1    Download

Applied Reservoir Engineering, Smith, Part.2   Download


Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering – Craft
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  Basic Applied Reservoir Simulation
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the Practice of Reservoir Engineering
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   Essentials of Reservoir Engineering, Donnez
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Reservoir Material Balance
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Reservoir Engineering Tarek Ahmed
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A Reservoir Simulator for Studying Productivity
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  Fundamentals of Fractured Reservoir Engineering
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  How to Characterize Fractured Reservoirs
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  Handbook of Porous Media
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The Reservoir Engineering Aspects Of Fractured Formations
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Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy
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production operation vol 1 (well completions, workover, and stimulation)   Download 

production operation vol 2 (well completions, workover, and stimulation)  Download


  Sandstone Reservoirs
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Determination of Absolute and Relative Permeability
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Basics of Reservoir Simulation
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Porosity, Permeability & Skin Factor
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Determination of Oil and Gas Reserves
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Reservoir Fluids
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Hydraulic Fracturing Stimulation Techniques and Formation Damage
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Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
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Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs
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Water Flooding
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Origin and Prediction of Abnormal Formation Pressure
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Formation Pressure
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Hydraulic Fracturing Explained – Evaluation, Implementation, and Challenges
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Advanced Petroleum Reservoir Simulation
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Hydrocarbon Traps
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Reservoir Formation Damage
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Advances in Reservoir Geology
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Reservoir Characterization – Mohammed AlHossainy
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Sandstone Petroleum Reservoirs
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Sandstone Reservoirs
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Abnormal Formation Pressure
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Reservoir Model Design, A Practitioner’s Guide
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Core Well Logging
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Understanding Petroleum Reservoirs
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Unconventional Gas Reservoirs Evaluation, Appraisal and Development
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Location of Fluids in Oil and Gas Reservoirs
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Exploring for Stratigraphic Traps
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Characterization of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
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Formation Evaluation using Routine Core Analysis
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Reservoir
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World Atlas of Oil and Gas Basins
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Volcanic Reservoirs in Petroleum Exploration
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Hydraulic Fracturing Explained – Evaluation, Implementation, and Challenges
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The Petroleum System From Source to Trap
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Fractured Reservoirs
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Origin and Predection of Abnormal Formation Pressures
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Advanced Formation Evaluation
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Marine Petroleum Source Rocks
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Introduction to Wettability of Oil Reservoir
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Permeability Estimation
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Formation Pressure
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Complex Lithology Evaluation
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Understanding Tight Oil
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Stratigraphic Reservoir Characterization for Petroleum Geologists, Geophysicists, and Engineers

1st Edition    Download
2nd Edition  Download


a boundary integral method applied to water coning in oil reservoirs
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Density and Porosity of Oil Reservoirs and Overlaying Formations
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Reservoir Quality Prediction in Sandstones and Carbonates
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Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties
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Quantitative Methods in Reservoir Engineering
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Experimental Design in Petroleum Reservoir Studies
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Production Enhancement with Acid Stimulation
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Basin to Basin – Plate Tectonics in Exploration from Schlumberger
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Role of Clay in Oil Reservoirs
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Solution Gas Drive in Heavy Oil Reservoirs
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Sedimentary Basins & Petroleum Geology
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Petroleum Traps Supplementary Notes
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Seismic Stratigraphy, Basin Analysis and Reservoir Characterization
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Production Strategy for Thin-Oil Columns in Saturated Reservoirs
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Exploration for Sandstone Stratigraphic Traps
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Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High Pressure Air Injection
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major Oil Reservoir in Permian Basin
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Fundamentals of Basin and Petroleum Systems Modeling
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Geomorphology of Oil and Gas Fields in Sandstone Bodies
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Hydrogeodynamics of Oil and Gas Basins
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Mass Properties of Sedimentary Rocks and Gravimetric Effects of Petroleum and Natural Gas Reservoirs
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Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs
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Wettability at High Temperatures 
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Wettability  
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Petroleum Books Page 4

oilfieldthis section is for petroleum books such as petroleum production – petroleum industry – petroleum engineering – oil well – gas well and many other books related to oil and natural gas industry.

  Surface & Subsurface Production Equipment
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  Temperature Determination
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  Operation of Proving Systems
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  Proving Systems Displacement Provers
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  All Symbols related to Oil & Gas Field
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  Wellhead Valves
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  Wellhead X-Mass Tree
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  Production Operation – Allen Part.1     Download    Password= www.jazire.co.cc

  Production Operation – Allen Part.2    Download     Password= www.jazire.co.cc


  EPS Well Testing
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 Nontechnical Guide to Petroleum, Geology, Exploration, Drilling and Production
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 Tankers
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  Petroleum Engineering Principles and Practice
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   Glossary of Oilfield Terms
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  Surface Well Testing from Halliburton
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  Crude Oil Desalting
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   Crude Oil Properties
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  Directional Survey Handbook from bp
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   Well Performance
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   Petroleum Lab Tests
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  Oil and Gas in Africa
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  Bitumens, Asphalts, and Tar Sands
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  a dictionary of Petroleum Industry
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  Analytical Methods in Petroleum Upstream Applications
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  Composition, Geochemistry and Conversion of Oil Shales
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  Halliburton Well Testing Manuals
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  Physical Principles of Oil Production
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  Oilfield Familiarization
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   Oil Shale Development
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  Oil Shale -Developments in Petroleum Science
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  Applied Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers
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  Oil Shale Formation & Extraction
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  Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior
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  Basin and Petroleum System Modeling from Schlumberger
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  Essential Oil Reference Book
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  Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas
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  Impacts of shale gas and shale oil on the environment
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  Field Operation Workshop Material
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   Petroleum Industry
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  Geochemistry and Chemistry of Oil Shales
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   Understanding Tight Oil
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  Oil Shale A Solution to the Liquid Fuel Dilemma
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  Petroleum Engineering
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  Best Practices in the Petroleum Industry
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  Introducing to Petroleum Exploration and Production
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  Uncertainty and Risk Analysis in Petroleum Exploration and production
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   Oil and Gas Industry
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  Oil and Gas Operators Manual
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  Overview of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Process
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  Oil and Gas Production and Surface Facilities
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  Petroleum Engineering, Principles and Practice
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  Handbook of Petroleum Processing
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  Oil Contracts
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  Oil and Gas Process Overview
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   Safety Shut-Down Valve SSV
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  Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production
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  Petroleum Well Construction from Halliburton
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  Oil Shale True Cost
Download


  Marine Terminals and Marine Transportation
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 middle east oilfields and drilling services Market Report
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


List of Crudes
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


Oil and Gas Frequently Asked Questions
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


Production Optimization
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


Testing Oilfield Technologies
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


The Origins of Oil and Gas
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


Trends in U.S. Oil and Natural Gas
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OPEC, its Role and Influence since 1960
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


Wellhead X-Mass Tree Equipment
Download Link 1        Download Link 2


Mathematical Methods and Modelling in Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production
Download Link


Oil and Gas Production Handbook
Download Link 1        Download Link 2


the Oil and Gas Industry – Nontechnical Guide
Download


All Petroleum Exams and Answers Part.1

Download Link 1        Download Link 2


All Petroleum Exams and Answers Part.2   Download Link 1        Download Link 2

 

Petroleum Books Page 3

this section is for petroleum books such as petroleum production – petroleum industry – petroleum engineering – oil well – gas well and many other books related to oil and natural gas industry.

  A handbook of petroleum, asphalt and natural gas
Download


  a Handbook of Petroleum Industry Vol.1  Petroleum Archive      Download 

  a Handbook of Petroleum Industry Vol.2   Petroleum Archive     Download


  Fuel Oil in Industry
Download


  Oil and Gas in Western Canada   Petroleum Archive
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   the American Petroleum Industry Vol.1  Petroleum Archive    Download

  the American Petroleum Industry Vol.2  Petroleum Archive      Download


  Oil and Natural Gas Fact Book
Download


  The petroleum industry of southeastern Illinois  Petroleum Archiver
Download


  Petroleum its Development and Uses  Petroleum Archiver
Download


  the Early and Later History of Petroleum  Petroleum Archiver
Download


   The Caucasian Petroleum Industry and its Importance to Eastern Europe and Asia  Petroleum Archiver
Download


  Oil & Natural Gas Transportation and Storage Infrastructure
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  Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming Crude Oil Systems
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  Oil Exploration
Download


 Hydrocarbons Physical Properties
Download


 How to Calculate Density?
Download


 Density & Relative Density
Download


 High H2S Oil Well
Download


 Horizontal Wells
Download


  Remediation of Asphaltene
Download


 Understanding Crude Oil and Product Markets
Download


  Brief Petroleum Introduction
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  The Relationship Between Oil Price and Costs in the Oil and Gas Industry
Download


 Separation Principles
Download


 Oil and Gas Production Handbook
Download


  Introduction to Oil & Gas Pipelines & tankers
Download


 Asphaltene  from Baker Hughes
Download


 Paraffins  from Baker Hughes
Download


  Emulsions  from Baker Hughes
Download


 Introduction to Oil & Gas Production
Download


 Oil Tanker Design & Equipment
Download


  Well Testing Interpretation Methods
Download


  Water Content of Petroleum Products
Download


  Hydrocarbon Exploration & Production
Download


   Production Engineering
Download


   Solid Desiccant Dehydrators
Download


 Producing Gas-Oil Ratio Performance of Conventional and Unconventional Reservoir
Download


  Crude Oil Composition
Download


  Chemical Analysis & Sampling
Download


  Tracers in the Oilfield
Download


 Properties of Petroleum Fractions
Download


  Handbook of Petroleum Processing
Download


  Petroleum Exploration and Drilling
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  Petroleum Engineering Handbook
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  Analytical Method of Petroleum Upstream
Download


   Oilfield Review
Download


  Kurdistan Oil Report ” towards growth peak”
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


   the Desulphurization of Heavy Oil

Download Link 1      Download Link 2


New Sources of Oil & Gas
Download


Handbook of petroleum exploration and production
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Introductory Session to Process Engineering in Oil and Gas
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Petroleum Books Page 2

this section is for petroleum books such as petroleum production – petroleum fields – petroleum engineers – sludge treatment – H2S – Oil spills and many other books related to oil and natural gas industry.

Handbook of Petroleum Processing
Download


Production Technology Part.1 – Heriot Watt University      Download

Production Technology Part.2 – Heriot Watt University      Download


Crude Oil Emulsions Composition Stability and Characterization
Download


Standards of Petroleum & Natural Gas Industry
Download


Impacts of Shale Gas & Shale Oil on Environment

Download


Environmental Control in Petroleum Engineering
Download


Production & Transport of Oil & Gas, Gathering and Transportation
Download


Petroleum Engineer Handbook   

 Petroleum Engineer Handbook Part.1      Download

 Petroleum Engineer Handbook Part.2      Download

 Petroleum Engineer Handbook Part.3      Download

Petroleum Engineer Handbook Part.4      Download

Petroleum Engineer Handbook Part.5       Download

Petroleum Engineer Handbook Part.6      Download


Sludge Treatment

Oil Recovery & Sludge Treatment
Download


Oil Sludge Treatment
Download


Refinery & Terminal Storage Tank Cleaning & Sludge Management Services
Download


H2S Books:

Measuring H2S in Crude Oil
Download


Hydrogen Sulfide in Petroleum
Download


H2S Analyzer
Download


H2S & Health in Oil & Gas Industry
Download


Experimental Analysis of the Hydrogen Sulfide Absorption
Download


Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide Content
Download


Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from Light Oil
Download


H2S Detection
Download Link 1       Download Link 2


Emulsions and Oil Treating Equipment Selection, Sizing and Troubleshooting
Download



 Oilfield Processing, Vol.1 Natural Gas      Download

  Oilfield Processing, Vol.2 Crude Oil         Download


  Oil Sands, Heavy Oil & Bitumen
Download


Oil Spills

  Detection , Analysis and Remote Sensing for Oil Spills
Download


  Effects of Oil Spill on the Environment
Download


  Oil Spills on Land
Download


  Oil Spills, Why do They happen? How Often?
Download


  Response to Oil Spills
Download


  Spill Treating Agents
Download


  the Basics of Oil Spills Cleanup
Download


  Oil Spills
Download


  Oil Spill treatment B1 open it using B1 Archiver
Download


 Oil Spills
Download


Safety and Health Awareness for Oil Spill Cleanup Workers  
Download Link 1      Download Link 2



 Wellhead Chokes
Download


 Types of Oil & Their Properties
Download


  China Oil, IEA Report 2012
Download


  Upstream Oil & Gas in China
Download


  Oil & Gas Production Handbook
Download


  Crude Oil Processing
Download


  Well testing and Interpretation for Horizontal Wells
Download


  Oil & Gas Exploration and Production from BP
Download


Petroleum Exploration and Production Rights Allocation Strategies and Design Issues
Download


  How to Estimate Reid Vapor Pressure of Blends
Download


   A to Z of the Petroleum Industry
Download


   Oil Shale
Download


   Oil Shale Development in United States
Download


  El-Nakheil Oil Shale in Egypt
Download


  the Petroleum Handbook
Download


  Origin of Petroleum
Download


  Technical Questions “Interview Questions” Arabic + English
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Petroleum Books Page 1

oilfieldthis section is for petroleum books such as petroleum production – petroleum fields – petroleum engineering – oil well – gas well and many other books related to oil and natural gas industry.

Surface Production Operations Part.1       Download

Surface Production Operations Part.2     Download

Surface Production Operations Part.3     Download


Standard Handbook of Petroleum & Natural Gas
Download


Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering
Download


Petroleum & Gas Field Processing
Download


Oil and Gas Production Handbook
Download


The Global Oil and Gas Strategy
Download


Crude Oil Production System
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum
Download


 

Heavy Oil Books

Electromagnetic heating for Heavy Oil
Download


Practical Heavy Oil Recovery
Download


Heavy Oil
Download


Heavy Oil Simulation Challenge
Download


Heavy Oil Recovery
Download


Handbook of Petroleum Product Analysis
Download


Production Engineering Handbook Series – L.W.Lake

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.1 – General Engineering      Download

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.2 – Drilling Engineering      Download

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.3 – Facilities and Construction Engineering     Download

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.4 – Production Operations Engineering          Download

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.5 – Reservoir Engineering and Petrophysics     Download

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.6 – Emerging and Peripheral Technologies         Download

Production Engineering Handbook Vol.7 – Indexes and Standards         Download


Oil & Gas Industry Terminology & Terms Oil & Gas Industry Dictionaries

Petroleum Glossary
Download


Dictionary for Oil Industry Terminology
Download


Glossary of Oil & Gas Terms
Download


All Illustrated Glossary of Selected Oil & Gas Terminology
Download


Glossary of terms Used in Oil Industry ConocoPhilips
Download


Petroleum English Dictionary
Download


Dictionary of Oil and Gas Production
Download



Crude Oil Dehydration & Desalting
Download


Crude Oil Stripping & Stabilization
Download


Gas – Oil Ratio Calculation
Download


Planning in Oil & Gas fields
Download


Production Optimization Using Nodal Analysis
Download


Gas Well Testing handbook
Download


Oil Well Testing Handbook
Download


Principles of Oil Well Production
Download


  2-Phase Separator Design Guide
Download


Introduction to Well Testing 
Download


Crude Oil Properties
Download


Definitions Used in Oil Industry
Download


Introduction to Oil Gas Production

Download Link 1    Download Link 2


Sand Control Books

Sand Control   4 MB
Download


Introduction to Sand Control
Download


Sand Control   11 MB
Download


Sand Control PowerPoint
Download


Sand Control   30 MB
Download



Fossil Hydrocarbon Chemistry and Technology
Download


Decline Curve Analysis  PowerPoint
Download


Decline Curve Analysis Pdf
Download


Decline Curve Analysis for Solution-Gas Drive Reservoirs Pdf
Download


Manual of Petroleum Measurement  “MOPM” Series

Calculation of Petroleum measured by Turbine or Displacement Meters
Download


 

Physical Properties Data, Temperature & Pressure
Download


Accessory Equipment for Liquid Meters
Download


Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Turbine Meters
Download


General Considerations for Measurement by Meters
Download


Books about USA crude Oil & natural gas

US Crude Oil & Natural Gas Proved Reserves 2012
Download


US Crude Oil & Natural Gas Federal & non- Federal areas
Download



Oil

Report Broken Links to : files@arab-oil-naturalgas.com 


Petroleum Books

Arabic Petroleum Books   Page 1   Page 2

Petroleum Books ” Crude Oil Books”  Page 1   Page 2    page 3   Page 4

Drilling Books  ” Oil Well Drilling” Page 1   Page 2    Page 3    Page 4    Page 5

Oil & Gas Reservoir Books  Page 1   page 2

Artificial Lift Books

Offshore Books

Enhanced Oil recovery Books

Drilling Fluids

Petrochemical Industry Books

Petrophysics and Seismic Books

Geophysics Books

Geology Books

Produced Water Treatment Books

Oilfield Chemicals 

Oil Well Logging Books

Crude Oil Refinery distillation Movies

Wet Crude Treatment Plant  Produced by our website team
Download    


what is Crude Oil?
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


Wellhead Installation
Download


Cracking and Reforming in Petroleum Refining
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


Fluid Catalytic Cracking
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


X – mass Tree Components
Download


Vapor Recovery Unit Principles
Download


Stage Separation
Download


Heavy Crude Oil
Download


How to Make Petrol or Gas from Crude Oil
Download


Crude Oil Metering
Download


Surface Flowline and Separators
Download


X-Mass Tree Components Part.1
Download 

X-Mass Tree Components Part.2
Download


Choke Valve
Download


Crude Oil Treatment
Download


What is the difference between Sweet Crude Oil and Heavy Oil
Download


Oil Refinery Process 3D Animation
Download


Petroleum and its Refining
Download


See also our Refinery Books section

3-phase separator
Download


What is Wellhead?
Download


 Vertical Separator Animation
Download


Petroleum Origin
Download


Oil Storage Tanks
Download


Oil Refinery Overview
Download


Oil Tanker Anatomy – Basics
Download


How Oil Tanker Ships made?
Download


Artificial Lift from Weatherford
Download


Understanding the Oil & Gas Reservoir from Schlumberger
Download


Formation Of Reservoir Rock
Download


Sucker Rod Pump Animation
Download


Underground Injection Wells
Download


Crude Oil Distillation
Download


Oil Treatment
Download


3-phase Separator
Download


Emulsions and Horizontal Heater Treater Principles
Download


Emulsions and Electrostatic Treater Principles
Download


 Emulsions and Vertical Heater Treater Principles
Download


Petroleum Refining Basics
Download


Oil Refinery Part.1     Download

Oil Refinery Part.2     Download


Crude Oil refinery Operations
Download


Distillation Column
Download


  2 phase separator
Download


  Oil Refining
Download


Oil Production Fundamentals  27 flash movies about different stages of oil production
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


What are Emulsions?
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


Paraffin Emulsifier
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


Demulsifier Bottle Test

Download Link 1     Download Link 1


Distillation Startup and Shutdown
Download Link 1     Download Link 2


Distillation Basics
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


Continuous Distillation
Download Link 1       Download Link 2


Distillation Process Controlling

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Operating Distillation Process

Download Link 1       Download Link 2


Crude Oil Heater
Download Link 1        Download Link 2


Crude Oil Desalter
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


Desalador de Crudo
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


Refining Processes
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


Crude Oil Refining (Distillation, Cracking and Reforming)
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


Desalting
Download Link 1       Download Link 2


Crude Oil Distillation Simplified
Download Link 1       Download Link 2


Crude Oil Fractions and their Uses  
Download Link 1      Download Link 2

Reservoir Engineering Movies

this page contains a lot of movies about petroleum reservoirs, reservoir engineering, reservoir models, reservoir performance and water drive.

 A 3D Geological Model, So What?
Download


  Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
Download


  From Seismic to Simulation Geologic Integrity, No Compromise on 3D Reservoir Models
Download


  Gas Cap Drive Empje por Capa de Gas
Download


  MBE (Material Balance Equation)
Download


  How 3D Seismic Is Used To Explore Oil And Gas Geophysics Rocks
Download


  Petroleum Exploration Part 1      Download

  Petroleum Exploration Part 2      Download

  Petroleum Exploration Part 3      Download

  Petroleum Exploration Part 5     Download

  Petroleum Exploration Part 6      Download

  Petroleum Exploration Part 7      Download

  Petroleum Exploration Part 8     Download


  Reservoir Performance Part 1     Download

  Reservoir Performance Part 2     Download


 Reservoir – Solution Gas Drive
Download


 an introduction 3D Seismic Geophysics Rocks
Download


  Water Drive
Download


  What is Stochastic Reservoir Simulation
Download

Miscellaneous Petroleum Videos

Cathodic Protection for Pipes
Download Link 1    Download Link 2


Vapor Recovery Unit Principles
Download


BP Permit Works
Download


Two Phase Liquid with Dispersion
Download


Tank Construction Sequence
Download


Strainers
Download


Absorption & Adsorption
Download


Cathodic Protection , Galvanic ,Sacrificial Anodes
Download


Hot Tapping & Pipeline Pigging
Download


a Typical Pipeline Construction
Download


Hot Tapping
Download


Pipeline Cleaning
Download


Fluid Flow Lectures

Lecture 1 – Hydrostatic Pressure     Download

Lecture 2 – Hydrostatic Pressure     Download

Lecture 3 – Turbulent Flow      Download

Lecture 4 – Flow rate measurement    Download

Lecture 5 – Incompressible flow rate Measurement    Download

Lecture 6 – Continuity and Bernoulli Equation     Download


Artificial Lift Part.1     Download

Artificial Lift Part.2     Download


Plunger Lift System
Download


What is Gage, Vacuum and Absolute Pressure
Download


Oil Tank Cleaning, Sludge Removal and Oil Spill Clean Up Technology
Download


Heavy Crude Oil
Download


What happens when crude oil spills into the sea
Download


Tar Sands Oil Extraction – The Dirty Truth
Download


What is Crude Oil?
Download


Why Is Crude Oil’s Price So Volatile
Download


Impressed Current Cathodic Protection
Download Link 1      Download Link 2


Dearator Working Animation 
Download Link 1        Download Link 2

Who is Petroleum Engineer?

by: Mohammed Altahir Eliebied


Petroleum Engineer Job Description & Career Opportunities
A petroleum engineer is a subset of the engineering career, focused upon the exploration for and extraction of hydrocarbons (crude oil or natural gas). Petroleum engineers often work closely with geologists to determine where accessible reservoirs of hydrocarbons are located, as well as the best method for safe removal.

The growth outlook for petroleum engineers in the United States is bleak, as most of the remaining hydrocarbon deposits are
difficult to extract in some way. However, for petroleum engineers willing to travel, there is expected to be a moderate increase in the number of employment opportunities. This will likely be most true in developing nations where hydrocarbon deposits have yet to be fully mapped. Most petroleum companies maintain offices around the world, with petroleum engineers being shuffled to areas of the greatest need.

Petroleum Engineer Job Responsibilities

Petroleum engineers will determine the most likely locations of hydrocarbon reservoirs, and map the extent of the field. Their reports to the company will include their recommendations for drilling methods, the amount of hydrocarbons contained, and drilling simulation data.

A petroleum engineer will also design and implement drilling protocols, specialized extraction equipment, and simulate hydrocarbon extraction. Currently, drilling and other extraction methods can only remove a fraction of hydrocarbon reservoirs at best. New ideas are constantly needed to improve both the efficiency and effectiveness of hydrocarbon removal.

Petroleum Engineer Training and Education Requirements

A bachelor’s degree is the typical requirement for most petroleum engineering jobs. Some schools offer petroleum engineering degrees, while others provide general engineering degrees with a focus on compatible disciplines. For jobs involving research or teaching, a master’s level degree or Ph.D. is almost always required. A minor, or a second degree in related fields such as geology, geophysics, or mining will be extremely helpful.

A background in computer science is important as well. Most drilling simulations will be done through specialized software. Also, designing new drilling equipment will be worked on through a computer.

A petroleum engineer will almost always be working in an interdisciplinary team of geologists, drilling engineers and others. Interpersonal communication will be key. Being able to communicate technical information in an understandable manner can be helpful. Patience is valuable, given that a petroleum engineer may spend years investigating a single hydrocarbon deposit. They must be willing to accept dirty or oily environments in the case of workplace accidents.

Most universities will not offer a degree in petroleum engineering. Those that do are typically located in or near hydrocarbon production regions of the country (such as California, Oklahoma, and Texas).

Following graduation, for petroleum engineering involving health and public safety, a petroleum engineer must receive a license from the state of employment. A license will involve a degree in engineering, a few years of experience, and a test to conclude the licensing process.

Most petroleum companies will provide a training program after hiring. Some petroleum training programs may substitute for an advanced degree in certain companies. A more experienced petroleum engineer will almost always serve to mentor the new employee due to the highly technical nature of the work. After years of experience, consulting can be an option for a petroleum engineer with knowledge about a specific region of the world.

A petroleum engineer will often work long hours during a day. They must be willing to travel frequently to potentially uncomfortable regions.

Petroleum Engineer Salary and Wages

The median annual earnings for a petroleum engineer in May of 2009 were $119,960. Candidates with exceptional region-specific knowledge or private consultants earned more.

The National Association of Colleges and Employers reported in 2003 that petroleum engineers with a bachelor’s degree received salary offers averaging $55,987 per year.

While petroleum engineering has historically enjoyed high compensation for the engineering field, low oil and gas prices has driven petroleum engineering wages down at times.

Petroleum Engineer Certifications

For petroleum engineers working for the state or federal government, a license for the state of employment will be required.

The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) offers the Petroleum Engineering Certification, a four step process to judge competency. An undergraduate engineering or field-related science degree is the first requirement to become certified. A period of experience and training within the petroleum engineering field is also required (typically for a period of four years). Next, an examination will test the petroleum engineer’s competency with a multi-series test. Lastly, references from peers will be submitted. An annual renewal fee is charged for each year following the passing of the test.

Petroleum Engineer Professional Associations

The SPE is the foremost authority for petroleum engineers. Forerunners of the SPE were begun in 1913, following the discovery of the Spindletop reservoir in 1901. The SPE received its current name in 1957. Today, the SPE counts more than 92,000 members.

The SPE stores member research and technical papers, making them available online for convenience. Over 85,000 documents are able to be viewed by members. The SPE also holds documents from related fields, with organizations such as the Society of Underwater Technology (SUT) and American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA) supplying their own information for perusal.

What is Natural Gas?

Natural gas is a subcategory of petroleum that is a naturally occurring, complex mixture of hydrocarbons, with a minor amount of inorganic compounds. Geologists and chemists agree that petroleum originates from plants and animal remains that accumulate on the sea/lake floor along with the sediments that form sedimentary rocks. The processes by which the parent organic material is converted into petroleum are not understood.

    Natural Gas is a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons occurring in reservoirs of porous rock (commonly sand or sandstone) capped by impervious strata. It is often associated with petroleum, with which it has a common origin in the decomposition of organic matter in sedimentary deposits. Natural gas consists largely of methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6), with also propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10)(separated for bottled gas), some higher alkanes (C5H12 and above) (used for gasoline), nitrogen (N2) , oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sometimes valuable helium (He). It is used as an industrial and domestic fuel, and also to make carbon-black and chemical synthesis. Natural gas is transported by large pipelines or (as a liquid) in refrigerated tankers. Natural gas is combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases, and when burned it gives off a great deal of energy. We require energy constantly, to heat our homes, cook our food, and generate our electricity . Unlike other fossil fuels, however, natural gas is clean burning and emits lower levels of potentially harmful byproducts into the air. It is this need for energy that has elevated natural gas to such a level of importance in our society, and in our lives.
The contributing factors are thought to be bacterial action; shearing pressure during compaction, heat, and natural distillation at depth; possible addition of hydrogen from deep-seated sources; presence of catalysts; and time.

Natural gas accumulations in geological traps can be classified as reservoir, field, or pool. A reservoir is a porous and permeable underground formation containing an individual bank of hydrocarbons confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is characterized by a single natural pressure system. A field is an area that consists of one or more reservoirs all related to the same structural feature.

a pool contains one or more reservoirs in isolated structures. Wells in the same field can be classified as gas wells, condensate wells, and oil wells. Gas wells are wells
with producing gas-oil-ration (GOR) being greater than 100,000 scf/stb, condensate wells are those with producing GOR being less than 100,000 scf/stb but greater than 5,000 scf/stb; and wells with producing GOR being less than 5,000 scf/stb are classified as oil wells.

natural gas components
natural gas components

The Components of Natural Gas

   Although the principal use of natural gas is the production of pipeline quality gas for distribution to residential and industrial consumers for fuel, a number of components in natural gas are often separated from the bulk gas and sold separately.

  1. METHANE
The principal use of methane is as a fuel; it is the dominant constituent of pipeline quality natural gas. Considerable quantities of methane are used as feedstock in
the production of industrial chemicals, principally ammonia and methanol.

 

2. ETHANE
The majority of the ethane used in the United States comes from gas plants, and refineries and imports account for the remainder. In addition to being left in the
gas for use as a fuel, ethane is used for the production of ethylene, the feedstock for polyethylene.
  3. PROPANE
Gas plants produce about 45% of the propane used in the United States, refineries contribute about 44%, and imports account for the remainder. The principal uses
are petrochemical (47%), residential (39%), farm (8%), industrial (4%), and transportation (2%) . A special grade of propane, called HD-5, is sold as fuel.
  4. ETHANE–PROPANE MIX
When NGL is fractionated into various hydrocarbon streams, the butanes along with part of the propane are sometimes separated for use in local markets because
they are transportable by truck. The remaining light ends, an ethane−propane mix (E-P mix), is then pipelined to a customer as a chemical or refining feedstock.
5. ISOBUTANE
Approximately 42% of the United States supply of isobutene comes from gas plants, refineries supply about 5% (this percentage does not include consumption
of isobutane within the refinery), and imports are responsible for about 12%. The remaining isobutane on the market is furnished by isomerization plants that
convert n-butane to isobutane. The three primary markets for isobutane are as a feedstock for MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) production (which is being
phased out), as a feedstock in the production of reformulated gasoline, and as a feedstock for the production of propylene oxide.
  6. n-BUTANE
Gas plant production of n-butane accounts for about 63% of the total supply, refineries contribute approximately 31%, and imports account for the remainder.
Domestic usage of n-butane is predominantly in gasoline, either as a blending component or through isomerization to isobutane. Specially produced mixtures
of butanes and propane have replaced halocarbons as the preferred propellant in aerosols.
  7. NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS
Natural gas liquids (NGL) include all hydrocarbons liquefied in the field or in processing plants, including ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline. Such
mixtures generated in gas plants are usually referred to as “Y-grade” or “raw product.”
  8 NATURAL GASOLINE
Natural gasoline, a mixture of hydrocarbons that consist mostly of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons and meet GPA product specifications, should not be confused
with natural gas liquids (NGL), a term used to designate all hydrocarbon liquids produced in field facilities or in gas plants.
The major uses of natural gasoline are in refineries, for direct blending into gasoline and as a feedstock for C5/C6 isomerization. It is used in the petrochemical
industry for ethylene production.
  9. SULFUR
Current sulfur production in the United States is approximately 15,000 metric tons per day (15 MMkg/d); about 85% comes from gas processing plants that
convert H2S to elemental sulfur. Some major uses of sulfur include rubber vulcanization, production of sulfuric acid, and manufacture of black gunpowder

 References:
1. Natural Gas Engineering Handbook, Dr. Boyun Guo and Dr. AIi Ghalambor
2. Natural Gas, by Primož Potočnik.
3. Fundamentals of Natural Gas, Arthur J. Kidnay & William R. Parrish

AONG website

Arab Oil and Natural Gas website

Petroleum Books Section

petroleum BooksOur website AONG contains hundreds of free petroleum books, they are classified into different sections. divided to many categories , sections and sub sections, easy download. this section contains more than 2500 FREE books, it is the biggest collection ever at the web.

 


Petroleum Movies Section

petroleum industryOur website contains hundreds of free movies about petroleum industry, and natural gas facilities divided into different sections and sub-sections, easy-download , updated everyday, this section includes more than 700 FREE movies about oil and natural gas industry.

 


Drilling Video Course

Drillingmore than 140 FREE movies about Oil Well Drilling, the biggest video course in the internet about Drilling. it contains movies about:
well casing – cementing & cement additives – Drilling mud systems & additives – Blow Out Preventers BOP – Drilling bits – well logging – directional drilling – drilling rig – Permeability  & Porosity

 



Schlumberger Drilling Training Course

SchlumbergerThis course consists of 10 CDs, supports 6 languages “English – French – Spanish – Portuguese – Indonesian & Arabic” , it contains all what you need in petroleum well drilling such as:
Drilling Rig – Drilling machines – Drilling Mud – Drilling Fluids – Drilling Mud treatment – Pipe Handling – Rotary Equipment – Casing & Cementing – Well Logging – Mud Logging – BOPs ..etc


Pumps Video Training Course

pumpthe biggest collection of free movies about pumps, explaining everything about pumps, their internal parts. it is simply “Pumps A to Z”.
such as centrifugal pump parts, reciprocating pumps, multi-stage centrifugal pumps, Single Stage Centrifugal Pumps and Reading a Pump Curves.

 


Reservoir EngineeringReservoir Engineering Movies

in this section you will find a lot of books about reservoir Engineering, reservoir engineering, reservoir models, reservoir performance and water drive.

 


Reservoir SimulationReservoir Simulation Software

a big collection of books about reservoir simulation software movies, such as Petrel – Eclipse – OFM – CMG.

 


Real Time Crude Oil Prices:
enjoy the real-time crude prices from our website, see crude oil prices , Brent Oil and West Texas crude prices: