• oxygen scavanger
    Petroleum - English

    What is Oxygen Scavenger

    Is oxygen corrosive? Yes. Oxygen is a highly reactive gaseous element. In the presence of steel, the corrosion rate of oxygen doubles for each 30°F rise in temperature. For example, in a boiler system operating at 400 psig and 444°F, the corrosion rate for oxygen is 256 times more reactive than at room temperature. How does oxygen attack metal surfaces? Oxygen forms localized corrosion areas referred to as “pits.” This distinctive formation is readily distinguishable from acid attack, caustic gouging or chelate corrosion. Oxygen pits can rapidly “drill” through metal surfaces, leading to metal fatigue and failure. What is the oxygen corrosion mechanism? Oxygen corrosion is an electrochemical process similar…

  • Porosity
    Petroleum - English

    Effective and Relative Permeability

    Mustafa AbdulSattar           When there is only one type of fluid flowing through porous media, the permeability for this case is called “absolute permeability.” However, when there is more than one type of fluids present in a rock, a permeability of each fluid to flow is decreased because another fluid will be moving in the rock as well.  A new term of permeability called “effective permeability” is a permeability of a rock to a particular fluid when more than one type of fluid is in a rock Reservoir consists of three fluids (gas, oil, and water) so these are commonly used abbreviations for effective permeability for each fluid. kg…

  • HSE
    Petroleum - English

    HSE in Drilling

    An effective HSE program is characterized by no injury to people, no loss of property, and no harm to the environment. Great HSE performance is anindication of great leadership. It is much more than statistics, although measurements are necessary to facilitate performance improvement. HSE must be considered a core responsibility for all business participants, operators, contractors, and service companies and be accepted by all individuals on a personal basis. It is imperative that all parties are committed from the top management down throughout their organizations. The main reasons companies in the current era support strong HSE programs include humanitarian reasons (i.e., not hurting people), legal or regulatory requirements, the company’s…

  • oil well
    Drilling

    Well Pressure Control

        Basically all formations penetrated during drilling are porous and permeable to some degree. Fluids contained in pore spaces are under pressure that is overbalanced by the drilling fluid pressure in the well bore. The borehole pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure plus the friction pressure loss in the annulus. If for some reason the borehole pressure falls below the formation fluid pressure, the formation fluids can enter the well. Such an event is known as a kick. This name is associated with a rather sudden flowrate increase observed at the surface. SURFACE EQUIPMENT A formation gas or fluid kick can be efficiently and safely controlled if the…

  • crude oil
    Petroleum - English

    What is Crude Oil

          Petroleum, meaning literally “rock oil,” is the term used to describe a myriad of hydrocarbon-rich fluids that have accumulated in subterranean reservoirs. (also called crude oil) varies dramatically in color, odor, and flow properties that reflect the diversity of its origin. Petroleum products are any petroleum-based products that can be obtained by refining and comprise refinery gas, ethane, liquefied petroleum gas LPG, naphtha, gasoline, aviation fuel, marine fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, gas oil, lubricants, white oil, grease, wax, asphalt, as well as coke. Crude oils are complex mixtures of these hydrocarbons. Oils containing primarily paraffin hydrocarbons are called paraffin-based or paraffinic.…

  • Drilling

    Oil Well Drilling Pipe

        The major portion of drill string is composed of drill pipe. Drill pipe consists of three components: a tube with a pin tool joint welded to one end and a box tool joint welded to the other.       Before the tool joints are welded to the tube, the tube is upset, or forged, on each end to increase the wall thickness.  After upsetting, the tube is heat treated to the proper grade strength. All tool joints are heat treated to the same material yield strength (120,000 psi), regardless of the grade of pipe to which they are attached. Most drill pipe is made from material similar to AISI…

  • Geophysics
    Petroleum - English

    Geophysical Techniques

    Author: Mustafa AbdulSattar Gravitational, Magnetic, Radioactive and Thermal are depend on the rock inherent properties Like (Density, Magnetism, temperature and radioactive properties) —-Passive Electric–natural Currents or Artificial Electrical Source—passive Seismic-Artificial Source of Energy —Active   The Gravity Method: The weight of any body depends on the force of gravity at the spot. The force of gravity various with elevation, rock density, latitude, and topography. A mass suspended from spring, the amount of spring stretching is proportional to the force of gravity. F=m . g g: Acceleration of gravity. since mass is constant, then stretch variations determine the variations in the acceleration of gravity (g). The GRAVIMETER instrument used to measure…