• heat exchanger
    Equipment- English

    the Basics of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

    Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Shell and tube heat exchangers are used extensively throughout the process industry and as such a basic understanding of their design, construction and performance is important to the practicing engineer. The objective of this paper is to provide a concise review of the key issues involved in their thermal design without having to refer to the extensive literature available on this topic. The author claims no originality but hopes that the format and contents will provide a comprehensive introduction to the subject and enable the reader to achieve rapid and meaningful results. The optimum thermal design of a shell and tube heat exchanger involves the consideration of many…

  • pipeline
    Equipment- English

    Pipeline Design

          The major steps in pipeline system design involve establishment of critical pipeline performance objectives and critical engineering design parameters such as: • Required throughput (volume per unit time for most petroleum products; pounds per unit time for petrochemical feedstocks); • Origin and destination points; •Product properties such as viscosity and specific gravity; •Topography of pipeline route; •Maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP); and •Hydraulic calculations to determine: •Pipeline diameter, wall thickness, and required yield strengths; •Number of, and distance between, pump stations; and •Pump station horsepower required. Safety Safety in pipeline design and construction is achieved by the proper design and application of the appropriate codes and system hardware components, as detailed…