• Cetane numebr
    Miscellaneous -English

    The Importance of Cetane Number in Diesel Fuel

    What is Cetane Number? Cetane Number is a measure of the ignition quality of a diesel fuel. It is often mistaken as a measure of fuel quality. Cetane number is actually a measure of a fuel’s ignition delay. This is the time period between the start of injection and start of combustion (ignition) of the fuel. In a particular diesel engine, higher cetane fuels will have shorter ignition delay periods than lower cetane fuels. Cetane number should not be considered alone when evaluating diesel fuel quality. API gravity, BTU content, distillation range, sulfur content, stability and flash point are also very important. In colder weather, cloud point and low temperature…

  • Combustion
    Safety - English


        Principles of Combustion Effective fire prevention requires a thorough understanding of: 1) conditions under which flammable and combustible materials vaporize; 2) what is meant by an ignitable or flammable mixture; 3) what is meant by a source of ignition and how combustion spreads from such a source. This section discusses these topics. Definitions Combustion (burning) is the rapid oxidation reaction between a reducing agent (fuel) and an oxidizer (usually oxygen in the air) accompanied by the evolution of heat and usually the production of flame. Fuel means a material capable of combusting and particularly designates the material (gas, liquid or solid) which feeds a fire. Flammable refers to…

  • flare
    Equipment- English

    Flare Types and Components

        Introduction Flaring is a volatile organic compound (VOC) combustion control process in which the VOCs are piped to a remote, usually elevated, location and burned in an open flame in the open air using a specially designed burner tip, auxiliary fuel, and steam or air to promote mixing for nearly complete (> 98%) VOC destruction. Completeness of combustion in a flare is governed by flame temperature, residence time in the combustion zone, turbulent mixing of the components to complete the oxidation reaction, and available oxygen for free radical formation. Combustion is complete if all VOCs are converted to carbon dioxide and water. Incomplete combustion results in some of the VOC being unaltered or converted…

  • LNG ship
    Natural Gas - English

    Converting Natural Gas to LNG

    LNG Natural gas, which is comprised primarily of methane, is one of our most abundant natural resources, both domestic and abroad. Unfortunately, many of the natural gas reservoirs are located in relatively remote areas, or offshore, and high transportation costs tend to prohibit extensive use of this potentially valuable resource. To overcome this limitation, the Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has developed a highly diversified research program to evaluate, promote and develop processes that convert natural gas, methane, into higher value products (i.e., liquid fuels) which will offset the high transportation costs and allow use of this untapped, environmentally friendly resource. By advancing technologies to convert unmarketable gas resources into valuable products, cooperative efforts…