• Combustion
    Safety - English


        Principles of Combustion Effective fire prevention requires a thorough understanding of: 1) conditions under which flammable and combustible materials vaporize; 2) what is meant by an ignitable or flammable mixture; 3) what is meant by a source of ignition and how combustion spreads from such a source. This section discusses these topics. Definitions Combustion (burning) is the rapid oxidation reaction between a reducing agent (fuel) and an oxidizer (usually oxygen in the air) accompanied by the evolution of heat and usually the production of flame. Fuel means a material capable of combusting and particularly designates the material (gas, liquid or solid) which feeds a fire. Flammable refers to…

  • LNG ship
    Natural Gas - English

    Converting Natural Gas to LNG

    LNG Natural gas, which is comprised primarily of methane, is one of our most abundant natural resources, both domestic and abroad. Unfortunately, many of the natural gas reservoirs are located in relatively remote areas, or offshore, and high transportation costs tend to prohibit extensive use of this potentially valuable resource. To overcome this limitation, the Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has developed a highly diversified research program to evaluate, promote and develop processes that convert natural gas, methane, into higher value products (i.e., liquid fuels) which will offset the high transportation costs and allow use of this untapped, environmentally friendly resource. By advancing technologies to convert unmarketable gas resources into valuable products, cooperative efforts…

  • hydrate
    Natural Gas - English

    Natural Gas Hydrates

    what are Hydrates Introduction to Hydrate Natural gas hydrates are ice-like materials formed under low temperature and high pressure conditions. Natural gas hydrates consist of water molecules interconnected through hydrogen bonds which create an open structural lattice that has the ability to encage smaller hydrocarbons from natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons as guest molecules. Interest in natural gas hydrates as a potential energy resource has grown significantly in recent years as awareness of the volumes of recoverable gas becomes more focused. The size of this resource has significant implications for worldwide energy supplies should it become technically and economically viable to produce. Although great efforts are being made, there are…

  • Natural Gas - English

    What is Natural Gas?

          Natural gas is a subcategory of petroleum that is a naturally occurring, complex mixture of hydrocarbons, with a minor amount of inorganic compounds. Geologists and chemists agree that petroleum originates from plants and animal remains that accumulate on the sea/lake floor along with the sediments that form sedimentary rocks. The processes by which the parent organic material is converted into petroleum are not understood.     Natural Gas is a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons occurring in reservoirs of porous rock (commonly sand or sandstone) capped by impervious strata. It is often associated with petroleum, with which it has a common origin in the decomposition of organic matter in…