• desalter
    Petroleum - English

    Wet Crude Oil Treatment Plant

    what is Wet Crude? in the beginning of the production from any reservoir the crude oil contains no water and salt; with time it begins to produce large amounts of water and salt, although the density difference guarantee that water stays bellow crude oil in the reservoir, but sometimes water content will with time. wet crude facility was founded to reduce the negative effects of water and salt content, especially on the crude oil production and treatment equipment, the crude oil price, and specification. during wet crude treatment, salt and other impurities are removed from oil, these salts are dissolved in the reservoir water. it is either free water, this thing makes…

  • foam
    Petroleum - English

    foam in oil gas separators

    foam in crude oil foam is a small bubbles of gas surrounded with a thin film of oil, this phenomena reduces the separation efficiency, foam exists in the gas oil interface when separator pressure decreases, or because of the surface tension, viscosity, and some impurities, because of that, small droplets are generated, these droplets are covered with oil, this happens when gas is liberated. in general; the quick motion inside the separator will cause foaming, this foam will cover the fluid surface and prevent gas from escaping, foam also reduces gas space inside the separator, and can pass the demister and escape to the gas outlet in the form of…

  • Petroleum - English

    Emulsion Treating Part.2

    Emulsion-Treating Methods An emulsion-treating unit or system will use one or more of the methods to aid in destabilizing, coalescence, and/or gravity separation. Each of these treating methods is discussed separately below. Heating. Using heat to treat crude-oil emulsions has four basic benefits: Heat reduces the viscosity of the oil, which allows the water droplets to collide with greater force and to settle more rapidly. Crude-oil viscosities vary widely, and the curves on this chart should be used only in the absence of specific data. If a crude oil’s viscosity is known at two temperatures, it can be approximated at other temperatures by drawing a straight line along those temperature/viscosity points on…

  • emulsion
    Petroleum - English

    Emulsion Treating Part.1

          Most of the world’s oil reservoirs now produce a mixture of oil and water. The liquids are subjected to shear forces through pumps or other lifting methods, or are sheared as they pass through pressure-reducing devices in the production line. The shear forces disperse one liquid into the other with variations in drop size and stability that are related to the shear force encountered and the physicochemical nature of the production stream. Such dispersions commonly are referred to as emulsions, although many are not true emulsions. In a true emulsion, either the drop size must be small enough that forces from thermal collisions with molecules of the continuous phase produce Brownian motion…

  • crude oil treatment
    Petroleum - English

    Crude Oil Treatment

    Crude Oil Treatment   Electrostatic & Mechanical Treaters Introduction After primary oil/water separation, there is often a small amount  of unwanted salts in residual water in the crude oil that needs to be reduced to a concentration around 5-10 PTB (Pounds per Thousand Barrels) salt. This salt needs to be removed so that the crude oil can be processed in a refinery or stabilizer plant without fouling heaters and exchangers and other equipment. Crude Oil Desalting technology is utilised to remove residual salt to meet these requirements. The type and size of the Desalter that is used is dependent on a number of fundamental factors such as pressure, temperature, fluid viscosity…

  • heavy oil
    Petroleum - English

    what Heavy Oil, tar and bitumen mean

            Heavy oil is a type of petroleum that is different from conventional  petroleum insofar as they are much more difficult to recover from the subsurface reservoir. Heavy oil, particularly heavy oil formed by biodegradation of organic deposits, are found in shallow reservoirs, formed by unconsolidated sands. This characteristic, which brings about difficulties during well drilling and completion operations, may become a production advantage due to higher permeability. Heavy oil has a much higher viscosity (and lower API gravity) than conventional petroleum, and recovery of these petroleum types usually requires thermal stimulation of the reservoir. When petroleum occurs in a reservoir that allows the crude material to be recovered by pumping operations as a free-flowing…

  • Oil Trading

    Oil Trading Books the biggest collection of FREE books about oil trading, trading strategies, crude oil price , energy trading risk management, oil markets, oil contracts , market basics, oil trading strategy, crude oil markets, and so on. all you have to do, is to choose the required book then click on DOWNLOAD under the book’s name, and you will be redirected to the download link page, links are updated and monitored continuously, if you see any BROKEN LINK report it to our website team. Crude Oil Trading Hedge Strategy Download Link 1         Download Link 2 What Drives Crude Oil Price? Download Link 1    …

  • التصميم الداخلي لعازلة أفقية
    Petroleum - English

    Gas–Oil Separators part. 1

    Commercial Types of Gas–Oil Separator Based on the configuration, the most common types of separator are horizontal, vertical, and spherical, Large horizontal gas–oil separators are used almost exclusively in processing well fluids in the Middle East, where the gas–oil ratio of the producing fields is high. Multistage GOSPs normally consists of three or more separators. The following is a brief description of some separators for some specific applications. In addition, the features of what is known as ‘‘modern’’ GOSP are highlighted. Test Separators These units are used to separate and measure at the same time the well fluids. Potential test is one of the recognized tests for measuring the quantity of both oil and gas produced by the…

  • crude Tank
    Petroleum - English

    Crude Oil Sweetening and Stabilization

    why crude oil is stabilized? Once degassed and dehydrated–desalted, crude oil is pumped to gathering facilities to be stored in storage tanks. However, if there are any dissolved gases that belong to the light or the intermediate hydrocarbon groups it will be necessary to remove these gases along with hydrogen sulfide (if present in the crude) before oil can be stored. This process is described as a ‘‘dual process’’ of both stabilizing and crude oil sweetening. In stabilization, adjusting the pentanes and lighter fractions retained in the stock tank liquid can change the crude oil gravity. The economic value of the crude oil is accordingly influenced by stabilization. First, liquids can be stored and transported to the market…

  • paraffin oil
    Petroleum - English

    Oilfield Paraffin and Asphaltene

    Paraffin control products prevent crude oil precipitation of paraffin wax deposits in production risers, subsea tie-backs, or any other production tubular or transportation pipeline. Paraffin – Asphaltenes and Inhibitors Some formulation products are wax crystal modifiers that prevent paraffin formation by interfering with the bonding of aliphatic wax molecules. Composed of branched chain polymers, these modifiers bond to the wax crystal lattice at an active growing site but prevent further growth and interfere with deposition by disrupting the lattice structure. Although the paraffins remain unstable in solution, they are prevented from growing crystals of adequate size to block production lines; hence production is not impeded even for temperatures below the…

  • Petroleum Books Page 2

    this section is for petroleum books such as petroleum production – petroleum fields – petroleum engineers – sludge treatment – H2S – Oil spills and many other books related to oil and natural gas industry. Handbook of Petroleum Processing Download Production Technology Part.1 – Heriot Watt University      Download Production Technology Part.2 – Heriot Watt University      Download Crude Oil Emulsions Composition Stability and Characterization Download Environmental Control in Petroleum Engineering Download Oil Shale Books Oil-Shale Formation and Extraction Methods , Ahmed Elfarnwany/ Graduation+Project    Download Shale Oil Industry Guide Download Composition, Geochemistry and Conversion of Oil Shales Download Impacts of shale Gas and Shale Oil on the…

  • Petroleum Books Page 1

    this section is for petroleum books such as petroleum production – petroleum fields – petroleum engineering – oil well – gas well and many other books related to oil and natural gas industry. Surface Production Operations Part.1       Download Surface Production Operations Part.2     Download   Standard Handbook of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering Part.1 Download Standard Handbook of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering Part.2 Download Petroleum & Gas Field Processing Download Link 1     Download Link 2  Oil and Gas Production Handbook Download Petroleum Production System Download Link 1     Download Link 2 The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum Download what are the chemicals used in different…