• pipe corrosion
    Petroleum - English

    How Corrosion Happens in Oil and Gas Industry

    Internal Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production Facilities  Before talking about corrosion in oil and gas facilities, we have to define some of the main sections of these facilities: Gathering System and Manifolds Unit – Gather the flowlines that convey the liquid and/or gaseous hydrocarbons coming from production wells. – Send the product, by means of block valves and in safety conditions, on the production or test manifold to the treatment Units.     Separation Unit – Separation tests and relevant measures. – Carry out the production tests on the single wells. – Analysis of oil phases, salted water and associated gas, separated under determinate pressure and temperature conditions; –…

  • Oil Gas Separator
    Petroleum - English

    Liquid Carry-over and Gas-blowby in oil gas separators

          when we talk about oil gas separators in the modern designs of GOPS, the designers took into consideration all operation problems, by adding high sensitivity control valves, and accurate pressure and level indicators which decreased these problems to the minimum, most operation problems now are occurring because of bad operation, human mistakes, or any malfunction of these control valves. Carry Over in Oil-Gas Separator:     In simple words Liquid Carry Over means: exit of crude oil droplets with the gas already separated from oil; this will lead to a very black smoke from the flare; and burning the small amounts of oil from time to time, it…

  • sand control
    Petroleum - English

    Sand Control

      Consequences of sand production: • Wellbore fill. • Equipment problems due to sand fill. • Sand erosion of downhole and surface equipment. • Sand accumulation on surface and Sand Disposal. • Production Loss. • Casing / Liner Collapse. Forces Aiding in Resisting Sand Production: • Intergranular frictional forces and bonding (cementing) help resist grain movement • Capillary Pressure adds further grain-to-grain bonding. Forces Contributing to Sand Production: • Pore pressure relieves frictional forces. • Production of wetting phase reduces capillary pressure forces. What causes sand production? • Totally or weakly unconsolidated formations. • Changing stresses in the near wellbore area. • Water Production. Sand Production Mechanism Primer: – Rock shear collapse owing to in situ…

  • Trading

    Trading Natural Gas, Oil and Gasoline

      Energy commodities can be traded. You can trade gasoline, natural gas and even heating oil commodities. Energy is a broad term which can mean any commodity that is used as power. You’ll be able to trade in the same oil that powers your home’s heating, gasoline for automobiles and any other form of energy. Supply, Demand and Seasonal Factors Supply and demand are the key drivers behind energy commodities. “Supply and demand is crucial for determining the oil price – particularly as the yield from certain major oil fields declines,” states Royal Capital. Distillate energy, or heating oil and gasoline, are reliant on each other’s pricing; the more that…

  • cementing
    Drilling

    Oil Well Cementing Functions, Classes and Equipment

        Functions of cement –  Restriction of fluid movement between permeable zones –  Provision of mechanical support of the casing string –  Protection of casing from corrosion –  Support of the well-bore walls to prevent collapse of formations The manufacture and composition of cement –  Raw material from calcareous and argillaceous rocks (limestone, clay, shale and slag). –  Dry raw materials finely ground and mixed in correction proportions (kiln feed). – Chemical compositions of dry mix determined and adjusted. – Kiln feed fed at a uniform rate in a sloping rotary kiln. – The mixture travels at the lower end. – Powdered coal, fuel oil or gas, fired into the kiln.…

  • pipeline
    Equipment- English

    Pipeline Design

          The major steps in pipeline system design involve establishment of critical pipeline performance objectives and critical engineering design parameters such as: • Required throughput (volume per unit time for most petroleum products; pounds per unit time for petrochemical feedstocks); • Origin and destination points; •Product properties such as viscosity and specific gravity; •Topography of pipeline route; •Maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP); and •Hydraulic calculations to determine: •Pipeline diameter, wall thickness, and required yield strengths; •Number of, and distance between, pump stations; and •Pump station horsepower required. Safety Safety in pipeline design and construction is achieved by the proper design and application of the appropriate codes and system hardware components, as detailed…

  • Iraq Oil
    Petroleum - Arabic

    Iraq Oil History

    تاريخ انتاج النفط في العراق عقيل الشويلي        تعود محاولات انتاج النفط في العراق الى القرن التاسع عشر حيث كان الالمان هم اول من حاول استكشاف النفط في العراق في الفترة (1860-1880) حيث استقدمهم والي بغداد العثماني مدحت باشا وقاموا بإنشاء مصفى في بعقوبة لتصفية النفط المستخرج من مندلي وفي عام 1882قام السلطان عبد الحميد الثاني بإصدار فرمان من الباب العالي يقضي بضم أراضي الموصل (بضمنها عين زالة و القيارة ) .  وفي العام 1902تم حفر اول بئر نفطية بمهارات انكليزية في حقل جيا سورخ قريبا من الحدود الايرانية ورغم قلة الانتاج الا انها كانت طفرة نوعية وجذبت انتباه الشركات الاخرى للعراق وفي عام 1905 قامت شركات فرنسية…

  • oilfield
    Petroleum - Arabic

    Oil Reservoir Administration

    ادارة الحقول النفطية المهندس عقيل الشويلي تعتبر عملية استثمار الحقول النفطية من ضمن عمليات الانتاج التي تتضمن عدة نقاط جوهرية يجب ان يدركها العاملين في هذا القطاع اهمها : اولا : كيف يتم الانتاج ؟ وماهي الخطوات العملية للانتاج .؟ ثانيا : ماهي الكمية والنوع للمنتج ؟ ثالثا : لمن الانتاج ..؟ من الذي سيجني ثمار الانتاج …؟ وهنا نجد جانبين مهمين في عملية الانتاج الاول هو علاقة الانسان بالطبيعة خلال عملية الانتاج والجانب الاخر علاقة الانسان بغيره من الافراد في تلك العمليات . حيث يجب ان تصب العملية الانتاجية في خدمة الانسان لا العكس . ومن اجل الانتفاع الامثل بعملية انتاج النفط يجب ان تحدد الدولة المنهج الاقتصادي المناسب الذي يعود عليها…

  • emulsion
    Petroleum - English

    Emulsion Treating Part.1

          Most of the world’s oil reservoirs now produce a mixture of oil and water. The liquids are subjected to shear forces through pumps or other lifting methods, or are sheared as they pass through pressure-reducing devices in the production line. The shear forces disperse one liquid into the other with variations in drop size and stability that are related to the shear force encountered and the physicochemical nature of the production stream. Such dispersions commonly are referred to as emulsions, although many are not true emulsions. In a true emulsion, either the drop size must be small enough that forces from thermal collisions with molecules of the continuous phase produce Brownian motion…

  • crude oil treatment
    Petroleum - English

    Crude Oil Treatment

    Crude Oil Treatment   Electrostatic & Mechanical Treaters Introduction After primary oil/water separation, there is often a small amount  of unwanted salts in residual water in the crude oil that needs to be reduced to a concentration around 5-10 PTB (Pounds per Thousand Barrels) salt. This salt needs to be removed so that the crude oil can be processed in a refinery or stabilizer plant without fouling heaters and exchangers and other equipment. Crude Oil Desalting technology is utilised to remove residual salt to meet these requirements. The type and size of the Desalter that is used is dependent on a number of fundamental factors such as pressure, temperature, fluid viscosity…

  • heavy oil
    Petroleum - English

    Heavy Oil Recovery

        American Petroleum Institute API classifies crude oil into different types as follows: 1. Light Crude Oil : its API is greater than 31.1° 2. Medium Crude Oil: its API is between 22.3° and 30.2°. 3. Heavy Crude Oil: its API is between 22.3° and 10°. heavy crude oil has a high viscosity, high density. and the heavy oil itself is classified into many types according to the Canadian Center for Energy according to its API as follows: 1. Heavy oil: which API is more than 10° and viscosity is less than 10,000 cp , and flows under reservoir conditions. 2. Extra Heavy Oil: which API is less than…

  • Oil Industry

    Share your Oil Industry Experience

      we invite experienced petroleum personnel to share his/her experience or unique assignments they performed. This way we can know about the other different applications or approaches in different problems in the oil industry. And about experience or journey, it will help others to be motivated and to be focused. Here, you can write any problem happened in your facility, and how did you solve it ;  or any hard situation you faced during your work in oil and natural gas facilities, drilling rig, crude oil refinery, tank farm, pumping station or any other facility related to oil industry in its different stages. See our Petroleum Articles Section You can…