• crude oil treatment
    Petroleum - English

    Crude Oil Treatment

    Crude Oil Treatment   Electrostatic & Mechanical Treaters Introduction After primary oil/water separation, there is often a small amount  of unwanted salts in residual water in the crude oil that needs to be reduced to a concentration around 5-10 PTB (Pounds per Thousand Barrels) salt. This salt needs to be removed so that the crude oil can be processed in a refinery or stabilizer plant without fouling heaters and exchangers and other equipment. Crude Oil Desalting technology is utilised to remove residual salt to meet these requirements. The type and size of the Desalter that is used is dependent on a number of fundamental factors such as pressure, temperature, fluid viscosity…

  • Petroleum - Arabic

    Surface Facilities in Oil & Natural Gas Production Part.1

    المنشآت السطحية لأنتاج النفط والغاز الطبيعي – الجزء الأول Surface Facilities in Oil & Natural Gas Production Part.1 أن آبار النفط أو الغاز تنتج مزيج من الغازات الهيدروكاربونية والمكثفات، أو النفط ، والماء مع بعض المعادن الذائبة و كمية من الأملاح وبعض الغازات الأخرى، مثل النتروجين، ثاني أوكسيد الكربون (CO2)، وربما كبريتيد الهيدروجين (H2S)، والمواد الصلبة، بما في ذلك الرمل والشوائب من تآكل الأنابيب. من أجل الحصول على النفط والغاز بكميات تجارية ليتم بيعها، يجب فصلها عن الماء والمواد الصلبة وبيعها ونقلها عبر خط أنابيب أو الشاحنات أو السكك الحديدية، أو ناقلات النفط الى المستخدم النهائي أما تصدير الغاز فيقتصر عادة على خطوط الأنابيب ولكن يمكن أيضا أن يشحن في…

  • gas treatment
    Natural Gas - English

    Gas Treating

    Introduction to Gas Treating When talking of gas treating, it is most often implied that natural gas is the focus. The natural gas industry is one of the World’s largest. However, there is also treatment of gas in the synthesis gas industry, and there are a number of processes used for this that are similar to those used for natural gas treatment. Finally, there is a large industry devoted to separate air to make nitrogen, oxygen and argon, and to an extent, krypton and xenon. Such plants would be cryogenic distillation outfits for large capacities while adsorption and membranes are also in use for smaller units. There is also an…

  • hydrate
    Natural Gas - English

    Natural Gas Hydrates

    what are Hydrates Introduction to Hydrate Natural gas hydrates are ice-like materials formed under low temperature and high pressure conditions. Natural gas hydrates consist of water molecules interconnected through hydrogen bonds which create an open structural lattice that has the ability to encage smaller hydrocarbons from natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons as guest molecules. Interest in natural gas hydrates as a potential energy resource has grown significantly in recent years as awareness of the volumes of recoverable gas becomes more focused. The size of this resource has significant implications for worldwide energy supplies should it become technically and economically viable to produce. Although great efforts are being made, there are…