drilling

Water-Base Muds

    Drilling Muds A water-base drilling fluid is one that has water as its continuous or liquid phase. The types of drilling fluids are briefly described in the following lines. Freshwater muds are generally lightly treated or untreated muds having a liquid phase of water, containing small concentrations of salt, and having a pH […]

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casing

Oil Well Casing

    Types of Casing  Based on the primary function of the casing string, there are five types of casing to be distinguished. Stove or Surface Casing The stovepipe is usually driven to sufficient depth (15–60 ft) to protect loose surface formation and to enable circulation of the drilling fluid. This pipe is sometimes cemented […]

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fishing

Fishing Equipment

Fishing Operations and Equipment A fish is a part of the drill string that separates from the upper remaining portion of the drill string while the drill string is in the well. This can result from the drill string failing mechanically, or from the lower portion of the drill string becoming stuck or otherwise becoming […]

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Well Control

what is well control Basically, all formations penetrated during drilling are porous and permeable to some degree. Fluids contained in pore spaces are under pressure that is overbalanced by the drilling fluid pressure in the well bore. The borehole pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure plus the friction pressure loss in the annulus. If […]

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drilling

Wells – Chemicals

Chemicals Used in Fracturing The identities of chemicals incorporated in fracturing fluids were probably the first thing sensationalized about fracturing. The movie “Gasland” created quite a stir with the statement that a “cocktail” of several hundred toxic chemicals were “potentially” used in fracturing. The grain of truth was that there are many chemicals in additives […]

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Drilling Rotating Equipment

Drilling Rotating Equipment

      Rotating system: the figure indicate the comparative sizes of the drill pipe and drill collar. Swivel ♦ The swivel hangs from the drilling hook by means of large bail, or handle. The swivel is not rotate, but allow everything below it to rotate. ♦ Drilling fluid is introduced into the drill stem […]

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drilling

Oil-Base and Synthetic-Base Muds

Drilling Mud Tests The field tests for rheology, mud density, and gel strength are accomplished in the same manner as outlined for water-based drilling mud. The main difference is that rheology is tested at a specific temperature, usually 120◦F or 150◦F. Because oils tend to thin with temperature, heating fluid is required and should be reported on the […]

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Drilling

Testing of Drilling Systems

    Drilling Fluids To properly control the hole cleaning, suspension, and filtration properties of a drilling fluid, testing of the fluid properties is done on a daily basis. Most tests are conducted at the rig site, and procedures are set forth in the API RPB13B. Testing of water-based fluids and nonaqueous fluids can be similar, but variations of […]

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acidizing

Acidizing Concepts

    Acid Types Although many acid compounds are available to the oil industry, only the following types have been proven economically effective in oil well stimulation: Inorganic Acids (Strong). · Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). · Hydrofluoric Acid (HCl:HF). Other inorganic acids include Sulphamic, Sulphuric and Nitric acids. Organic Acids (Weak). · Acetic Acid and Glacial Acetic […]

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