• gasoline
    Miscellaneous -English

    What is Gasoline

    Gasoline Gasoline (also referred to as motor gasoline, petrol in Britain, benzine in Europe) is a mixture of volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum that is used as fuel for internal combustion engines such as occur in motor vehicles, excluding aircraft The boiling range of motor gasoline falls between –1°C (30°F) and 216°C (421°F) and has the potential to contain several hundred isomers of the various hydrocarbons—a potential that may be theoretical and never realized in practice. The hydrocarbon constituents in this boiling range are those that have 4–12 carbon atoms in their molecular structure and fall into three general types: (1) paraffins (including the cycloparaffins and branched materials), (2) olefins, and…

  • LNG plant
    Natural Gas - English

    LNG Liquefaction and Purification Processes

    Introduction to LNG Processes  The refrigeration and liquefaction sections of any LNG project are very costly items of equipment. A number of cycles have been developed to achieve the low temperatures required. Brief descriptions of a small number of process routes will be give. Some twelve countries were operating by 2003. The cycles employed are the classical cascade, the mixed refrigerant and the propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant. The process selected must ensure high onstream factors, reliability of equipment, flexibility and ease of operations and guaranteed capacities. Small differences in projected thermodynamic efficiencies are usually less than the uncertainties in equipment performance. A proper choice must be made between the use of…

  • paraffin oil
    Petroleum - English

    Oilfield Paraffin and Asphaltene

    Paraffin control products prevent crude oil precipitation of paraffin wax deposits in production risers, subsea tie-backs, or any other production tubular or transportation pipeline. Paraffin – Asphaltenes and Inhibitors Some formulation products are wax crystal modifiers that prevent paraffin formation by interfering with the bonding of aliphatic wax molecules. Composed of branched chain polymers, these modifiers bond to the wax crystal lattice at an active growing site but prevent further growth and interfere with deposition by disrupting the lattice structure. Although the paraffins remain unstable in solution, they are prevented from growing crystals of adequate size to block production lines; hence production is not impeded even for temperatures below the…

  • crude oil
    Petroleum - English

    Crude Oil Components

          On average, crude oil are made of the following elements or compounds: Carbon – 84% Hydrogen – 14% Sulfur – 1 to 3% (hydrogen sulfide, sulfides, disulfides, elemental sulfur) Nitrogen – less than 1% (basic compounds with amine groups) Oxygen – less than 1% (found in organic compounds such as carbon dioxide, phenols, ketones, carboxylic acids) Metals – less than 1% (nickel, iron, vanadium, copper, arsenic) Salts – less than 1% (sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride) ­Crude oil is the term for “unprocessed” oil, the stuff that comes out of the ground. It is also known as petroleum. Crude oil is a fossil fuel, meaning that…

  • crude price
    Petroleum - English

    Crude Oil Price

    Crude Oil Price First of all we have to understand the Classification of Petroleum Products. The petroleum products that may be subject to evaluation can be grouped as: crude oil – natural gas – associated products Crude oil is a liquid composite of many hydrocarbon compounds that, depending on the composition, has differing properties such as oil gravity, viscosity, and pour point which, at least in part, define the quality of the oil for end use and also influence the methods that would be used to develop and produce the oil. Crude that has a high API gravity and low viscosity is generally easier to produce than low gravity, high…