• gas dehydration
    Natural Gas - English

    teg dehydration operation problems and solutions

       Definition of Natural Gas Dehydration: Removal of water from natural gas by lowering the dew point temperature of the natural gas. Dew point ..is the temperature to which a gas must be cooled in order to become saturated with water. Note that the water content is directly proportional to the dew point … it is recommended to keep dew point as minimum as possible. Presence of Water in Natural Gas Natural gas contains water as: In liquid form (free water) In vapor form (dissolved) Water present At source from reservoir (associated water with gas) As a result of sweetening in aqueous solution. It is necessary to reduce and control…

  • Natural Gas - English

    Fuel Gas Systems in Oilfield Facility

    FUEL GAS SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SCHEME AND FUNCTIONING It is one of the most important systems in any oil facility, because fuel gas is the main fuel for the whole plant, the most commonly used fuel in hydrocarbon treatment plants is natural gas because it is locally available and therefore financially more convenient than other fuels. Gas can be produced directly from the wells or obtained through the treatment of raw gas. The users can use fuel gas, only if its pressure is appropriate for the equipment and if it doesn’t contain liquid and solid impurities.  EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION AND PERFORMANCE The fuel gas feed comes from gas treatment pipelines or vessels…

  • gas compressor station
    Natural Gas - English

    Natural Gas Compressor station components

    what is Gas Compressor Station? it is one of the most important steps in natural gas industry, it compresses natural gas and raise its pressure to make it continue flowing and reach further distances, they are located at natural gas pipeline, and they are essential to guarantee a continuous flow of gas, this is done by gas compressor mainly driven by a gas turbine, and sometimes by an electrical motor. what is the main function of gas compressor station? to compress and dehydrate natural gas and make it reach to the downstream process “either it is a LPG plant or a LNG plant”. what are the main components of gas…

  • amine unit
    Natural Gas - English

    the Technologies of Natural Gas Sweetening

    Natural Gas Sweetening Natural gas may contain high quantities of hydrogen sulfide H2S and/or carbon dioxide CO2. The presence of these compounds renders the gas a sour gas. This is specially because sulfur has such negative effects on the quality of the produced gas, that the concentration of both components have to be reduced from the gas flow before being put into the distribution conducts for the users. The regulations allow a maximum of H2S equal to 0,002 gr./Nmc (1,31 PPM).The amount of CO2 in the gas produced will depend in the amount required by the regulations. Typical values allow a maximum concentration of carbon dioxide and other inerts to…

  • H2S
    Petroleum - English

    H2S in Oil Industry

        Introduction This article impacts on human health caused by exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) associated with crude oil and natural gas development. It begins with a brief background on hydrogen sulfide, its presence in oil and natural gas, and possible emission sources from various oil and gas operations. epidemiology, and industrial health publications, as well as of sources from regulatory and environmental agencies, that addresses human health impacts from exposure to H2S. Many recommendations established to protect human health are based on crude exposure estimates or on extrapolation from animal studies. The USA government does not regulate ambient H2S levels, but many states do. Three states conduct routine monitoring of ambient H2S levels, and…

  • Trading

    Trading Natural Gas, Oil and Gasoline

      Energy commodities can be traded. You can trade gasoline, natural gas and even heating oil commodities. Energy is a broad term which can mean any commodity that is used as power. You’ll be able to trade in the same oil that powers your home’s heating, gasoline for automobiles and any other form of energy. Supply, Demand and Seasonal Factors Supply and demand are the key drivers behind energy commodities. “Supply and demand is crucial for determining the oil price – particularly as the yield from certain major oil fields declines,” states Royal Capital. Distillate energy, or heating oil and gasoline, are reliant on each other’s pricing; the more that…

  • LNG ship
    Natural Gas - English

    Converting Natural Gas to LNG

    LNG Natural gas, which is comprised primarily of methane, is one of our most abundant natural resources, both domestic and abroad. Unfortunately, many of the natural gas reservoirs are located in relatively remote areas, or offshore, and high transportation costs tend to prohibit extensive use of this potentially valuable resource. To overcome this limitation, the Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has developed a highly diversified research program to evaluate, promote and develop processes that convert natural gas, methane, into higher value products (i.e., liquid fuels) which will offset the high transportation costs and allow use of this untapped, environmentally friendly resource. By advancing technologies to convert unmarketable gas resources into valuable products, cooperative efforts…

  • Oil Contract
    Trading

    Crude Oil Contracts

      Major traded oils More than 170 different oils are traded on the market, but this section will discuss the three major oils that usually attract the most attention, both in the news and in the markets around the world. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) is a crude oil of extremely high quality and because of this property, it is possible to extract more gasoline from a single barrel compared with most other crude oils traded on the market. The WTI has an API 10 gravity of 39.6 degrees, which gives the oil the characteristic of “light”; moreover the concentration of 0.24 percent of sulfur makes it a “sweet” crude oil.…

  • natural gas storage
    Natural Gas - English

    Natural Gas Processing

        Necessary Conditions and Goals of Processing : The types of treatments carried out on gas streams usually are: separation; – heating; – inhibition. – dehydration; – liquid hydrocarbon recovery; – sweetening. Treatment needs and objectives: The first gas treatments are temporary. Their aim is to prevent the hydrates formation and they’re classified as follows: – separation of free water; – increase in the temperature of gas above that of hydrate formation; – inhibitors injection to prevent hydrate formation. Elimination of free water The elimination of free water in the gas is carried out through separators that are installed at the well-head and at the entrance of the treatment stations. This treatment…

  • gas market
    Natural Gas - Arabic

    Natural Gas Markets

    سوق الغاز الطبيعي یعد الغاز من مصادر الطاقة النظیفة بعد النفط ، وقد كان لایشكل الا نسبة ضئیلة من مصادر الطاقة لاتتجاوز ٠.٣ % عام ١٩٣٨ ارتفعت الآن الى ٢٤ % . وترجع حصة الغاز المتواضعة في الماضي الى عدد من الاسباب الفنیة والاقتصادیة ، كتو افر كمیات كبیرة من النفط بأسعار منخفضة مقارنة بالغاز الذي یحتاج الى رؤوس اموال كبیرة ، والسبب الآخر هو صعوبة السیطرة على الغاز ولذلك كان یحرق بحكم توافر الفرصة البدیلة امام الشركات النفطیة . ولكن التطور التكنولوجي الهائل قد انعكس على استغلال الغاز من حیث ظهور وسائل حدیثة لنقل الغاز بالانابیب او الناقلات ، فضلا عن زیادة كمیات الاحتیاطي المكتشف من الغاز في العالم ، وتزاید اعتماد العدید من الصناعات…

  • natural gas storage
    Natural Gas - English

    Sweet Gas – Acid Gas – Condensate Gas what these terms mean?

        A natural gas is called sweet gas if it has no sour components such as H2S, CO2, mercaptans, but is almost exclusively composed of methane, low amounts of ethane, propane, inert gases (N2) and traces of heavier hydrocarbons. It is generally saturated in water at reservoir temperature and pressure. A natural gas is usually defined as sour when it contains hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and/or carbon dioxide (CO2). A condensate gas reservoir can be defined as a reservoir in which temperature is between critical temperature and cricondenthermal point (maximum temperature at which coexistence of the two phases is still possible) for the particular natural hydrocarbon system it contains. At this point it is useful to outline…

  • natural gas
    Natural Gas - English

    Components of Natural Gas other than Methane

          Natural gas is a mixture of methane, with lower amounts of other hydrocarbons and other substances. These other constituents modify the physical and chemical characteristics of natural gas, for example, inert gases make the natural gas heating value lower. The substances that can be in natural gas are: • Carbon dioxide • Nitrogen • Hydrogen sulphide Heavier hydrocarbons which can be separated to give condensate (gasoline) Water vapour is always contained in natural gas. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) The content in CO2 varies from traces to very high amounts. It forms from the reaction of field water with silicates and carbonates. Even a minimal presence of carbon dioxide in natural gas saturated with water forms…