• Boiler
    Equipment- English

    what are Boiler Types

    Industrial ,Commercial and Institutional Boilers Combustion boilers are designed to use the chemical energy in fuel to raise the energy content of water so that it can be used for heating and power applications. Many fossil and non-fossil fuels are fired in boilers, but the most common types of fuel include coal, oil, and natural gas. During the combustion process, oxygen reacts with carbon, hydrogen, and other elements in the fuel to produce a flame and hot combustion gases. As these gases are drawn through the boiler, they cool as heat is transferred to water. Eventually the gases flow through a stack and into the atmosphere. As long as fuel and air are both available…

  • valves
    Equipment- English

    What are the types of Valves

    Written By: Kashif Zaman Usafzaie‎‏ Valves Uses: Valves are used for: 1. Full flow of full throttle: Which is the wide range of valves use, because valves are designed in a way that reduce pressure losses for fluids passing through these valves, diaphragm valve is used with dangerous and toxic liquids. 2. Flow regulating: Sometimes, we need to regulate flow by changing the valve position between fully open and fully closed and throttling the valve reducing the flow, this is accomplished by using control valves. 3. One-way flow: Sometimes, we need to prevent liquids in the reverse way, this type of valves is installed at pump or compressor discharge lines to…

  • wellhead choke valve
    Equipment- English

    what does choke valve mean

    Most Common Choke Valves: •Positive: –Fixed orifice. –Disassemble to change bean. •Adjustable: –Provides variable orifice size through external adjustment. A choke is a restriction in a flow line that causes a pressure drop or reduces the rate of flow. It commonly uses a partially blocked orifice or flow path. Variable Chokes – good for bringing wells on gradually and optimizing natural gas lift flow in some cases. Prone to washouts from high velocity, particles, droplets. Solutions – hardened chokes (carbide components), chokes in series, dual chokes on the well head. Beans are fixed (non adjustable) orifices – ID size is in 64ths of an inch. Choke Uses •Control Flow –…

  • digital oilfield
    Equipment- English

    Does Digital Oilfield mean Zero Oilfield Workers

    what is Digital Oilfield? sometimes called Smart Oilfields, or intelligent oilfield, in few words; it means running the whole oilfield with smart devices with less personnel. Why digital Oilfield? it is important to understand why using such technology, actually; for many reasons such as : running huge oilfield processes , increasing the profits, minimizing human mistakes, minimizing the labor force especially the ones who travel to faraway fields or wells and work in dangerous environments, and finally which is the most important decreasing the cost significantly. this technology is too important when talking about handling hundreds of signals and possibilities using some special process software, helping us making better decisions…

  • heat exchanger
    Equipment- English

    the Basics of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

    Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Shell and tube heat exchangers are used extensively throughout the process industry and as such a basic understanding of their design, construction and performance is important to the practicing engineer. The objective of this paper is to provide a concise review of the key issues involved in their thermal design without having to refer to the extensive literature available on this topic. The author claims no originality but hopes that the format and contents will provide a comprehensive introduction to the subject and enable the reader to achieve rapid and meaningful results. The optimum thermal design of a shell and tube heat exchanger involves the consideration of many…

  • pipeline
    Equipment- English

    Pipeline Design

          The major steps in pipeline system design involve establishment of critical pipeline performance objectives and critical engineering design parameters such as: • Required throughput (volume per unit time for most petroleum products; pounds per unit time for petrochemical feedstocks); • Origin and destination points; •Product properties such as viscosity and specific gravity; •Topography of pipeline route; •Maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP); and •Hydraulic calculations to determine: •Pipeline diameter, wall thickness, and required yield strengths; •Number of, and distance between, pump stations; and •Pump station horsepower required. Safety Safety in pipeline design and construction is achieved by the proper design and application of the appropriate codes and system hardware components, as detailed…

  • Equipment- English

    what is Centrifugal Compressor

    Figure 1 shows the basic components of a centrifugal compressor. Impellers are mounted on a horizontal shaft. They are the primary rotating elements that impart velocity to the gas. Impellers are also called wheels. Diffusers are stationary elements mounted in the compressor casing. There is one diffuser downstream of each impeller. The diffuser converts velocity to pressure. Each diffuser is contained in a removable section of the casing called a diaphragm. Each diaphragm also has a passage that directs the gas to the suction of the next impeller. Each impeller and diffuser assembly is a stage of compression. The shaft is supported at both ends by journal bearings. These are normally tilt-pad type…

  • gate valve
    Equipment- English

    Valve Types

          GENERAL In industrial piping, the control of flow is very important. Mechanical devices used for flow control are called valves. The principal functions of valves are: · Starting and Stopping Flow · Regulating or Throttling Flow · Preventing Back Flow · Regulating Pressure · Relieving Pressure Steel valves are classified by nominal pipe size (NPS) and by pressure-temperature service ratings. There are two service ratings; a Primary Rating and a Cold Working Pressure Rating: · The Primary Rating is a pressure rating established by standards and accepted practice at an elevated temperature. · The Cold Working Pressure Rating is the rating at ambient temperature (minus 20°F to 100°F). This rating is…

  • Bubble Caps
    Equipment- English

    How Bubble Cap Tray Works

        Distillation towers are the heart of a process plant, and the working component of a distillation column is the tray. A tray consists of the following components, as shown in figure below: Overflow, or outlet weir Downcomer Tray deck There are two types of tray decks: perforated trays and bubble cap trays. In this chapter, we describe only perforated trays, examples of which are Valves or flutter caps V grid, or extruded-valve caps Sieve decks Jet trays Possibly 90 percent of the trays seen in the plant are of these types. Perforated tray decks all have one feature in common; they depend on the flow of vapor through…

  • Equipment- English

    Vessels

    what are the types of vessels? Horizontal Tanks (HT) Horizontal vessels are commonly used as settling drums, surge tanks, reactors and distillate drums. A settling drum is used for phase separation between two immiscible liquids. The L/D ratio of a settling drum is normally four. A surge tank or surge drum is used to maintain a constant flowrate of liquid to a downstream piece of equipment when the flowrate of liquid from the upstream piece of equipment is fluctuating. The fluctuations in flow rate are absorbed by the surge drum by allowing the liquid level in this drum to rise and fall. Horizontal drums are frequently filled with catalyst and used as reactors. Placing catalyst…

  • flare
    Equipment- English

    Flare Types and Components

        Introduction Flaring is a volatile organic compound (VOC) combustion control process in which the VOCs are piped to a remote, usually elevated, location and burned in an open flame in the open air using a specially designed burner tip, auxiliary fuel, and steam or air to promote mixing for nearly complete (> 98%) VOC destruction. Completeness of combustion in a flare is governed by flame temperature, residence time in the combustion zone, turbulent mixing of the components to complete the oxidation reaction, and available oxygen for free radical formation. Combustion is complete if all VOCs are converted to carbon dioxide and water. Incomplete combustion results in some of the VOC being unaltered or converted…

  • storage tanks
    Equipment- English

    Crude Oil Storage Tanks

        Introduction The design of storage tanks for crude oil and petroleum products requires, in general, careful consideration of the following important factors: _ The vapor pressure of the materials to be stored. _ The storage tank temperature and pressure. _ Toxicity of the petroleum material In order to meet the environmental constraints on air pollution, to prevent fire hazards, and to avoid losses of valuable petroleum products at the same time, it is recommended to adopt the following: _ The use of floating-roof tanks for petroleum materials with a vapor pressure of 1.12–11.5 psia (at the storage temperature) or Using fixed-roof tanks along with the VRU system. Storage tanks for crude…