pipeline

Pipeline Design

      The major steps in pipeline system design involve establishment of critical pipeline performance objectives and critical engineering design parameters such as: • Required throughput (volume per unit time for most petroleum products; pounds per unit time for petrochemical feedstocks); • Origin and destination points; •Product properties such as viscosity and specific gravity; •Topography of pipeline […]

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what is Centrifugal Compressor

Figure 1 shows the basic components of a centrifugal compressor. Impellers are mounted on a horizontal shaft. They are the primary rotating elements that impart velocity to the gas. Impellers are also called wheels. Diffusers are stationary elements mounted in the compressor casing. There is one diffuser downstream of each impeller. The diffuser converts velocity to […]

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gate valve

Valve Types

      GENERAL In industrial piping, the control of flow is very important. Mechanical devices used for flow control are called valves. The principal functions of valves are: · Starting and Stopping Flow · Regulating or Throttling Flow · Preventing Back Flow · Regulating Pressure · Relieving Pressure Steel valves are classified by nominal pipe […]

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Bubble Caps

How Bubble Cap Tray Works

    Distillation towers are the heart of a process plant, and the working component of a distillation column is the tray. A tray consists of the following components, as shown in figure below: Overflow, or outlet weir Downcomer Tray deck There are two types of tray decks: perforated trays and bubble cap trays. In […]

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Vessels

what are the types of vessels? Horizontal Tanks (HT) Horizontal vessels are commonly used as settling drums, surge tanks, reactors and distillate drums. A settling drum is used for phase separation between two immiscible liquids. The L/D ratio of a settling drum is normally four. A surge tank or surge drum is used to maintain a constant […]

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flare

Flare Types and Components

    Introduction Flaring is a volatile organic compound (VOC) combustion control process in which the VOCs are piped to a remote, usually elevated, location and burned in an open flame in the open air using a specially designed burner tip, auxiliary fuel, and steam or air to promote mixing for nearly complete (> 98%) VOC destruction. Completeness […]

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storage tanks

Crude Oil Storage Tanks

    Introduction The design of storage tanks for crude oil and petroleum products requires, in general, careful consideration of the following important factors: _ The vapor pressure of the materials to be stored. _ The storage tank temperature and pressure. _ Toxicity of the petroleum material In order to meet the environmental constraints on air […]

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Centrifugal Pump

How does Centrifugal Pump work

      pump converts mechanical energy into pressure in a flowing liquid. A centrifugal pump does this by centrifugal action, in two steps. Refer to Figure. (1) A centrifugal pump has two major components: the internal impeller and the outer casing. The liquid enters the suction of the pump at A. It then flows to B […]

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compressor

Surge Control in Centrifugal Compressors

    what is surge? Dresser-Rand has been a leading designer and supplier of surge control systems for centrifugal and axial compressors for over thirty-five years. Recent innovations in control technology have made it possible to supply surge control systems which are capable of coping with rapid flow fluctuations and process gas variations. Current surge control systems from Dresser-Rand Control Systems […]

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pipeline

Oil Pipeline Testing Methods

    Federal minimum pipeline safety regulations that establish minimum requirements for liquid pipeline safety integrity management allow four approaches to assess pipeline integrity: 1) Inline inspection or “ILI,” often called smart pigging, 2) hydrotesting, 3) direct assesment for external corrosion, 4) an equilavelent other technology that must be noticed and demonstrated to PHMSA before […]

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boiler

Industrial Boiler Design

A boiler is any closed vessel in which for any purpose, steam is generated under pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure. It includes any economizer used to heat to the water fed to the boiler, any super heater used for heating steam, and any pipes and fitting connected to the equipment. The boiler system comprises of a […]

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