• Cetane numebr
    Miscellaneous -English

    The Importance of Cetane Number in Diesel Fuel

    What is Cetane Number? Cetane Number is a measure of the ignition quality of a diesel fuel. It is often mistaken as a measure of fuel quality. Cetane number is actually a measure of a fuel’s ignition delay. This is the time period between the start of injection and start of combustion (ignition) of the fuel. In a particular diesel engine, higher cetane fuels will have shorter ignition delay periods than lower cetane fuels. Cetane number should not be considered alone when evaluating diesel fuel quality. API gravity, BTU content, distillation range, sulfur content, stability and flash point are also very important. In colder weather, cloud point and low temperature…

  • energy
    Miscellaneous -English

    what are the energy forms

    What is Energy? what does this term mean? because We hear about energy everywhere. why we hear about it everyday? and how important it is? We pay bills for energy every month, Athletes eat high-energy foods, and put as much energy as they can into the swing or the kick or the sprint. we hear this word many times everyday. Like most words, “energy” has multiple meanings. This article is about the scientific meaning of energy, which is fairly consistent with most, but not all, of the meanings of the word in the preceding paragraph. What is energy, in the scientific sense? I’m afraid I don’t really know. I sometimes visualize it as a substance, perhaps a…

  • erosion corrosion
    Miscellaneous -English

    what does Erosion-Corrosion mean

    Erosion-Corrosion Likelihood –  API RP14-E is not valid in presence of solid particles (sand) –  It is not valid in vertical flow (even if it is used as well) –  It is not valid for gas systems (where no definite velocity limits are identified). – Alternative models have been proposed (as SalamaModel)/ or typical critical flow velocities based on experience are often used in design as an optional approach to API Model. Erosion-Corrosion – its attacks occur when the corrosion process is associated with severe fluidynamic conditions, i.e. very high flow velocities, that give rise to the removing of corrosion product. The presence of suspended solid increases the attack. [action of…

  • gasoline
    Miscellaneous -English

    What is Gasoline

    Gasoline Gasoline (also referred to as motor gasoline, petrol in Britain, benzine in Europe) is a mixture of volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum that is used as fuel for internal combustion engines such as occur in motor vehicles, excluding aircraft The boiling range of motor gasoline falls between –1°C (30°F) and 216°C (421°F) and has the potential to contain several hundred isomers of the various hydrocarbons—a potential that may be theoretical and never realized in practice. The hydrocarbon constituents in this boiling range are those that have 4–12 carbon atoms in their molecular structure and fall into three general types: (1) paraffins (including the cycloparaffins and branched materials), (2) olefins, and…

  • lubricating Oil
    Miscellaneous -English

    Lubricating Oils Testing Methods

    INTRODUCTION Lubricating oil is used to reduce friction and wear between bearing metallic surfaces that are moving with respect to each other by separating the metallic surfaces with a film of the oil. Lubricating oil is distinguished from other fractions of crude oil by a high (>400°C/>750°F) boiling point In the early days of petroleum refining, kerosene was the major product, followed by paraffin wax wanted for the manufacture of candles. Lubricating oils were at first by-products of paraffin wax manufacture.The preferred lubricants in the 1860s were lard oil, sperm oil, and tallow, but as the trend to heavier industry increased, the demand for mineral lubricating oils increased, and after the 1890s…

  • corrosion
    Miscellaneous -English

    Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibitors

    Corrosion Corrosion is defined as the destructive attack of a metal by the environment, by chemical or by electrochemical processes (as contrasted with mechanical means such as the erosion of a metal structure by sand in the desert). Corrosion includes conjoint mechanical and chemical action to produce early failure of a load-carrying metal structure, eg. stress-corrosion cracking. see our How Corrosion Happens in Oil and Gas Industry Manifestations of Corrosion Most of the observed corrosion occurs as one or more of the following five cases: (1) uniform attack, the most common manifestation, in which the entire metal surface is covered with the corrosion product, eg, the rusting of iron in…

  • scale
    Miscellaneous -English

    Scale and Sclae Inhibitors

      what is Scale? Scale is normally a buildup of salts of calcium, barium or strontium as calcium carbonate, barium sulfate and strontium sulfate. Carbonate scale is caused by the presence of calcium and bicarbonate ions in the formation water. When pressures are decreased or temperatures are increased, the bicarbonate will begin to decompose, resulting in pH increases and calcium carbonate precipitation in the form of scale. Barium and strontium sulfates form in wells that produce waters naturally saturated with barium or strontium sulfates, or when produced water containing barium or strontium is contaminated with a sulfate-bearing water. When seawater injection is employed, the seawater contains sulfate, and the formation…