• hydrate inhibition injection
    Natural Gas - English

    Hydrate inhibitor injection system

    Hydrate Inhibitors The use of inhibitors is a common practice adopted in gas fields. The reasons are that the well fluids are almost always water saturated and at a rather high pressure. Therefore the cooling due to the fluid throttling at the wellhead choke valves and along the pipeline up to the oil or gas center make it necessary to check if any risk of hydrate formation is to be considered. And, very often, measures to avoid hydrates are to be taken. Generally,   inhibitors are used and the most commonly used inhibitors are: ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene (DEG) and methanol (MeOH). These compounds are injected at the wellhead. At the end of the pipeline,…

  • gas dehydration
    Natural Gas - English

    teg dehydration operation problems and solutions

       Definition of Natural Gas Dehydration: Removal of water from natural gas by lowering the dew point temperature of the natural gas. Dew point ..is the temperature to which a gas must be cooled in order to become saturated with water. Note that the water content is directly proportional to the dew point … it is recommended to keep dew point as minimum as possible. Presence of Water in Natural Gas Natural gas contains water as: In liquid form (free water) In vapor form (dissolved) Water present At source from reservoir (associated water with gas) As a result of sweetening in aqueous solution. It is necessary to reduce and control…

  • Natural Gas - English

    Fuel Gas Systems in Oilfield Facility

    FUEL GAS SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SCHEME AND FUNCTIONING It is one of the most important systems in any oil facility, because fuel gas is the main fuel for the whole plant, the most commonly used fuel in hydrocarbon treatment plants is natural gas because it is locally available and therefore financially more convenient than other fuels. Gas can be produced directly from the wells or obtained through the treatment of raw gas. The users can use fuel gas, only if its pressure is appropriate for the equipment and if it doesn’t contain liquid and solid impurities.  EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION AND PERFORMANCE The fuel gas feed comes from gas treatment pipelines or vessels…

  • gas compressor station
    Natural Gas - English

    Natural Gas Compressor station components

    what is Gas Compressor Station? it is one of the most important steps in natural gas industry, it compresses natural gas and raise its pressure to make it continue flowing and reach further distances, they are located at natural gas pipeline, and they are essential to guarantee a continuous flow of gas, this is done by gas compressor mainly driven by a gas turbine, and sometimes by an electrical motor. what is the main function of gas compressor station? to compress and dehydrate natural gas and make it reach to the downstream process “either it is a LPG plant or a LNG plant”. what are the main components of gas…

  • mercaptan
    Natural Gas - English

    The Effects of Mercaptans on Various Metals

    What is Mercaptan? for many oxygenated organic compounds, there are analogous derivatives in which sulfur replaces the oxygen atom. The derivatives are called “thiocompounds” (e.g., thioalcohols, thioethers, and thioaldehydes). Thiocompounds corresponding to the alcohols (e.g., methanethiol) also are called “mercaptans” because they easily form mercury salts and have been used to treat mercury poisoning. Mercaptans tend to have strong, repugnant odors resembling skunk spray, rotten egg, or rotten cabbage. Low-molecular weight varieties of the compounds are used to odorize natural gas. Mercaptans are integral raw materials for many agricultural, pharmaceutical, and industrial products (e.g., pesticides and jet fuel additives). They are supplied primarily by companies such as OxyChem (NGO), ChevronPhillips, and Atofina, although waste products in the form of mercaptan and sulfide byproducts have long been available from pulp mills. Methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) is toxic, as is…

  • amine unit
    Natural Gas - English

    the Technologies of Natural Gas Sweetening

    Natural Gas Sweetening Natural gas may contain high quantities of hydrogen sulfide H2S and/or carbon dioxide CO2. The presence of these compounds renders the gas a sour gas. This is specially because sulfur has such negative effects on the quality of the produced gas, that the concentration of both components have to be reduced from the gas flow before being put into the distribution conducts for the users. The regulations allow a maximum of H2S equal to 0,002 gr./Nmc (1,31 PPM).The amount of CO2 in the gas produced will depend in the amount required by the regulations. Typical values allow a maximum concentration of carbon dioxide and other inerts to…

  • Solid bed gas dehydration
    Natural Gas - English

    Gas Dehydration by Solid Beds method

     DEHYDRATION BY SOLID BEDS GENERAL This plant employs the same adsorbent materials used in the short cycle solid bed plant. The only difference between the two plants is the operating time. As a matter of fact, using the sova-bead as an adsorbent for a short time, we find that it adsorbs mainly hydrocarbons vapors (STRIPPING) on the contrary with the absorption time increasing, the sova-bead mainly segregates the water vapors, which will remove the drops of hydrocarbons that had been previously absorbed (DEHYDRATING). Scheme and Functioning In addition to water vapor, this kind of plant can also remove traces of hydrocarbon vapors such as C4, C5 and C6. The equipment used for a complete gas dehydration plant…

  • LNG plant
    Natural Gas - English

    LNG Liquefaction and Purification Processes

    Introduction to LNG Processes  The refrigeration and liquefaction sections of any LNG project are very costly items of equipment. A number of cycles have been developed to achieve the low temperatures required. Brief descriptions of a small number of process routes will be give. Some twelve countries were operating by 2003. The cycles employed are the classical cascade, the mixed refrigerant and the propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant. The process selected must ensure high onstream factors, reliability of equipment, flexibility and ease of operations and guaranteed capacities. Small differences in projected thermodynamic efficiencies are usually less than the uncertainties in equipment performance. A proper choice must be made between the use of…

  • natural gas
    Natural Gas - English

    Natural Gas Well Production Problems

        Eng. AlSayed Amer The ongoing process of producing hydrocarbons from a well is a dynamic process and this is often evidenced in terms of changes in the rock or fluid production characteristics. Problems are frequently encountered as a results of many reasons will be discussed. Associated Production Problems There are three basic problems which reduce gas flow from natural gas wells that have a sufficient reservoir pressure, porosity and permeability in a surrounding sand formation: 1-    Restriction of gas flow through casing perforations (sand covers perforations). 2-    Liquid loading of production tubing with water or condensate. 3-    Back pressure on wellhead. Sand production and perforation blockage When sand…

  • LNG ship
    Natural Gas - English

    Converting Natural Gas to LNG

    LNG Natural gas, which is comprised primarily of methane, is one of our most abundant natural resources, both domestic and abroad. Unfortunately, many of the natural gas reservoirs are located in relatively remote areas, or offshore, and high transportation costs tend to prohibit extensive use of this potentially valuable resource. To overcome this limitation, the Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has developed a highly diversified research program to evaluate, promote and develop processes that convert natural gas, methane, into higher value products (i.e., liquid fuels) which will offset the high transportation costs and allow use of this untapped, environmentally friendly resource. By advancing technologies to convert unmarketable gas resources into valuable products, cooperative efforts…

  • natural gas storage
    Natural Gas - English

    Natural Gas Processing

        Necessary Conditions and Goals of Processing : The types of treatments carried out on gas streams usually are: separation; – heating; – inhibition. – dehydration; – liquid hydrocarbon recovery; – sweetening. Treatment needs and objectives: The first gas treatments are temporary. Their aim is to prevent the hydrates formation and they’re classified as follows: – separation of free water; – increase in the temperature of gas above that of hydrate formation; – inhibitors injection to prevent hydrate formation. Elimination of free water The elimination of free water in the gas is carried out through separators that are installed at the well-head and at the entrance of the treatment stations. This treatment…

  • hydrate
    Natural Gas - English

    what are Hydrates and what is Hydrate Prevention

        Hydrates Hydrates are crystallized, compact, porous and rather light mass, similar to compressed snow. They are made of water, hydrocarbons, H2S and CO2. Unlike ice, hydrates have an unusual characteristic: they form at a temperature that is above water freezing point . For instance, they can form at 20 °C at particular pressures. When they are exposed to air, they dissolve chugging and fizzing because of the gas that is more or less slowly freed according to the surrounding temperature. When they are lit in the air, they can slowly and completely burn, until they leave a small residue of water. This does not represent the quantity of water they actually contain, as part…