• lubricating Oil
    Miscellaneous -English

    Lubricating Oils Testing Methods

    INTRODUCTION Lubricating oil is used to reduce friction and wear between bearing metallic surfaces that are moving with respect to each other by separating the metallic surfaces with a film of the oil. Lubricating oil is distinguished from other fractions of crude oil by a high (>400°C/>750°F) boiling point In the early days of petroleum refining, kerosene was the major product, followed by paraffin wax wanted for the manufacture of candles. Lubricating oils were at first by-products of paraffin wax manufacture.The preferred lubricants in the 1860s were lard oil, sperm oil, and tallow, but as the trend to heavier industry increased, the demand for mineral lubricating oils increased, and after the 1890s…

  • drilling
    Drilling

    Wells – Chemicals

    Chemicals Used in Fracturing The identities of chemicals incorporated in fracturing fluids were probably the first thing sensationalized about fracturing. The movie “Gasland” created quite a stir with the statement that a “cocktail” of several hundred toxic chemicals were “potentially” used in fracturing. The grain of truth was that there are many chemicals in additives sold for incorporation in fracturing; however; the fact is that most fracs use only a dozen or so major chemicals, some of which are food-grade additives and many are in parts per million concentration. About half of fracturing jobs are “slick water” fracturing fluid that often use low concentrations of two to five chemicals. Many…

  • Chemicals
    Petroleum - English

    Chemicals Used in Crude Oil Production

    Petroleum “A complex combination of hydrocarbons. It consists predominantly of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons. It may also contain small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur compounds. This article encompasses light, medium, and heavy petroleums, as well as the oils extracted from tar sands. Hydrocarbonaceous materials requiring major chemical changes for their recovery or conversion to petroleum refinery feedstocks such as crude shale oils, upgraded shale oils and liquid coal fuels are not included in this definition.” Various types of chemicals (which themselves can be mixtures or formulations of various chemicals) are required to aid the production, handling and transportation of crude oil. The chemicals used fall into several types as outlined below. For most, only…

  • Oilfield Chemicals
    Petroleum - Arabic

    Chemical Additives in Oil Wells’ Drilling

    المواد الكيمياوية المستعملة في حفر الآبار النفطية   Chemical Additives in Oil Wells’ Drilling هناك العشرات من المواد الكيمياوية التي تستعمل في المراحل المختلفة من صناعة النفط والغاز الطبيعي مثل : الحفر Drilling – الإكمال Completion – ومرحل أنتاج النفط والغاز الطبيعي. وسنحاول أن نلقي الضوء على قسم منها ، وتتضمن هذه المواد الأملاح غير العضوية – المواد المعدنية – البوليمرات Polymersالذائبة في الماء والنفط والمواد النشطة سطحياً . حيث تستخدم أغلب هذه المواد لديمومة الإنتاج في الحقول التي تعاني من النضوب.  لقد بدأت المواد الكيمياوية تأخذ دوراً كبيراً في صناعة النفط والغاز الطبيعي ، حيث يمكن أستخدامها في تحسين الإنتاج من هذه الحقول ، ويوماً بعد يوم ستأخذ الاعتبارات البيئية…